Allen’s Town, New Jersey

 

 

A Crossroads of the American Revolution

1775-1783

 

 

                                                 EARLY RESEARCH DRAFT

                                                               

                                                             March 21, 2001

                                                              

 

 

 

                                                        

                                              

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                       Edited by:

 Ann Garrison

                                                                     and

                                                 John Fabiano, Alice Wikoff.

 

                                                             Contributors:

                                                             John U. Rees,

                                                              Jean Hunter,

                                                              Judy Cronk.

 

                                                           Not for Publication

                                                 All Rights Reserved

             

                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                                 PAGE   

 

 

SIGNIFICANCE                                                                                       

 

Background Statement…………..………………………………………………… 

Strategic Location………………………………………………………………….. 

Monmouth County Quarter Master Headquarters………………………………….

Admiralty Court…………………………………………………………………….

Encampments/Skirmishes………………………………………………………….. 

Patriot Families- The Rhea Family, The Rogers Family………………………….

 

CHRONOLOGY

 

Life in the Colonial Allen’s Town

 

Transportation Between New York and Philadelphia

 

     Joseph Borden Assumes Control of the Stage and Boat Line…………………

     Samuel Rogers of Allentown, a Link in the Transportation Chain…………….

     Joseph Height, Proprieter of the Stage Boat Tavern…………………………..

 

Monmouth County – Prelude to the Revolutionary War

 

Allen’s Town – Prelude to the Revolutionary War

 

     Rev. McKnight Forced to Resign as Pastor of the Presbyterian Church………

     David Brearley Jailed by Provincial Authorities……………………………...

     David Brearley’s Law Office Burns…………………………………………..

 

Blockade of Boston Harbor

Imlaystown and Allenstown assist Bostonians

July 1775

 

     Extract Larry R. Gerlach---Prologue to Independence…………………………

 

Pennsylvania Council of Safety Resolves to Launch ‘Cheveaux de Frize’

March 1776

 

     Minutes of the Pennsylvania Council of Safety…………………………………

 

Loyalists Muster at Waln’s Mills in Upper Freehold, Monmouth County

May or June 1776

 

     Extract David J. Fowler---Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers and London

           Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon During the Revolutionary War…….

 

Burlington and Monmouth Militia Sent to Monmouth County

Civil War, Loyalist Activity and the Attempted Suppression Thereof

June 1776

 

     Record of the Provincial Congress………………………………………………

     Extract of a Letter from Samuel Tucker, Esq. To Hon. John

           Hancock, at Trenton…………………………………………………………

     Militia Ordered to Monmouth County…………………………………………..

     Extract  David J Fowler--- Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and

           London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon During the

           Revolutionary War…………………………………………………………..

 

Loyalists From Shrewsbury, Monmouth County Join British Forces

July 1776

 

      British Army Lands on Staten Island…………………………………………….

      Provincial Congress Again Orders Militia to Monmouth County……………….

 

Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment Encamp at Allentown

July 1776

 

     Continental Congress Appeals for a Rifle Battalion to Assist Militia……………

     Lieutenant James McMichael’s Diary……………………………………………

 

Groundwork Laid to Dispossess Loyalist Refugees

August 1776

 

      The Convention of New Jersey (successor of the Provincial Congress)………..

 

Balance of Power in New Jersey Shifts to the British and Loyalist Friends

August 1776

   

      American Defeat at Long Island Emboldens Loyalists………………………….

 

Arthur Donaldson Accused and Exonerated of Betraying the

Cheveaux de Frize

September 1776

 

     Extract Samuel Stelle Smith --- Fight For the Delaware 1777……………………

 

Pennsylvania Council of Safety Corresponds With Allentown Committee

October 1776

 

     Extract Pennsylvania Council of Safety…………………………………………..

 

Colonel Height Purchases Allentown Mills

November 1776 

 

     Deed Records (Hutchinson) – Colonel Joseph Height

          Purchases Allentown Mills……………………………………………………

 

A Fort is Built or Occupied by Militia Forces

 

      Extract John O. Raum--- The History of New Jersey in Two Volumes…………

      Jacobus Swangler -  Military Service Records…………………………………..

 

Eastern and Middle Monmouth County is Overrun (Freehold is under Tory Control)

November 1776

 

     Washington’s Orders to Colonel David Forman of Monmouth County…..…….

     British Offer ‘Pardon’ in Return For Taking an Oath to the King……………….                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

 

Local Tories Terrorize Upper Freehold

December 1776

 

     Extract David J. Fowler ---Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London

          London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the

          Revolutionary War……………………………………………………………

    Governor Livingston’s Papers - Deposition of William Imlay  #1………………

  

The Battle of Trenton

December 26, 1776

 

Colonel Von Donop Encamps at Allentown--- Prior To The

2nd Battle of Trenton / Battle of Princeton

December 1776

 

Captain Johann Ewald’s Journal, Field Jager Corps

          (Hessian)……………………………………………………………………

Extract Samuel Stelle Smith--- The Battle of Princeton………………………….

             

Gen. Cadwalader’s Forces Encamp at Allentown--- Prior To The                                   2nd Battle of Trenton / Battle of Princeton

December 1776

 

     Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary……………………………………………….

     Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary………………………………………………..

     Extract Samuel Stelle Smith--- The Battle of Princeton…………………………

     Extract Alfred Hoyt Bill--- The Campaign of Princeton, 1776-1777……………

     Extract William S. Stryker---The Battles of Princeton and Trenton…………….

     Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary………………………………………………..

     Thomas Rodney’s Letter to Caesar Rodney……………………………………..

     Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary………………………………………………..

 

Plan to Protect Gen. Washington’s Flank on The Way to The

Battle of Princeton

January 1777

 

     Extract Samuel Stelle Smith--- The Battle of Princeton…………………………

 

    

The 2nd Battle of Trenton (The Battle of the Assunpink)

January, 2, 1777

The Battle of Princeton

January 3, 1777

    

     Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary………………………………………………...

     Col. Reed’s Letter to Major General Putnam at Mount Holly……………………

     Letter from George Washington to Israel Putnam………………………………..

 

Americans Attack Monmouth Courthouse

January 1777

 

Washington Orders Army Provisions Collected – Captain Francis Wade

Posted at Allentown

January 1777

 

     Letter from George Washington to The Pennsylvania Safety Council…………..

     Letter from George Washington to Captain Francis Wade………………………

     Letter from Captain Francis Wade to George Washington………………………

 

The Death of Isaac Rogers ---Colonel Joseph Height Marries Hannah Talman Rogers

March 1777

 

     Death Notice of Isaac Rogers…………………………………………………….

   

Monmouth County Officers Petition the New Jersey State Governor’s

Council & General Assembly Asking that Harsh Measures Be Taken to

Counteract the Impact of British Offers of Protection to Those Who Take

the Oath of Allegiance to King George III which is Effecting Morale and   

Efficacy Among the Troops

March 1777…………………………………………………………………………

 

Elisha Lawrence Accepts Protection of the British

March 1777………………………………………………………………………….

 

Lewis Bestedo Kills Nicholas Williams and Captures Thomas Fowler and

Conveys Him to Allentown For Interrogation

April 1777

 

      Governor Livingston’s Papers--- Deposition of Lewis Bestedo……………….

 

Lieutenant Barton Captures Giles Williams, a Tory

May 1777    

 

     Letter from Colonel David Brearley to Governor Livingston…………………..

 

 British Forces Leave New York for Philadelphia

 July 1777

 

 Death of Elizabeth Brearley- Wife of Col. David Brearley

 August 1777

    

     Death Notice of Elizabeth Brearley—Pennsylvania Gazette…………………….

 

British Forces Take Possession of Philadelphia

September 1777

 

Washington Directs a Grain and Hay Magazine Be Established at Allentown

Spring 1778

 

     Letter from George Washington to Nathanael Greene………………………….

 

Gen. Clinton’s 1st Division Encampment At Allentown---On The Way To The

Battle of Monmouth

June 1778     

 

     Major Andre, Chief of British Intelligence, Spies on Allentown………………

     Letter from General Philemon Dickinson to George Washington………………

     Letter from Col. Sam Foreman to Major Gen. Philemon Dickinson……………

     Letter from George Washington to Major-General William Heath……………..

     Extract from Thomas Sullivan’s Journal………………………………………...

     Extract from Captain John Peebles Journal …………………………………….

     Extract from Quarter Master Hausser’s Journal ………………………………..

     Extract from Major Andre’s Journal…………………………………………….

     Extract from the Pension Deposition of William Lloyd………………………...

     Extract from the Pension Deposition of Major Thomas Massie………………… 

     Sarah Smith Stafford’s Letter to George W. Patterson,

          Member of the Legislature……………………………………………………

     Dean Storms- History of Allentown, New Jersey (1965)……………………….

     Extract from the Monmouth Democrat…………………………………………..

     Wm S. Stryker – The Battle of Monmouth……………………………………..

     Letter from Cap. John Heard to Gen. Washington………………………………

     Extract from Major Andre’s Journal……………………………………………

    ‘Eglinton’ - Records of the Allentown - Upper Freehold Historical Society……

    ‘Eglinton’ – Samuel N. Watson, D. D., - Those Paris Years……………………

     Traditions of the Allen/Imlay Plantation and the John Henry Estate……………

     Extract from Major Andre’s Journal…………………………………………….

     Encampment of 1778- Allentown Traditions……………………………………

     G. J. Gris---Allentown Messenger (1963)……………………………………….

     William H. Ford – The Charles R. Hutchinson Collection………………………

     Abel Cafferty – The Charles R. Hutchinson Collection…………………………

     Extract from Adj. General Major Baurmeister’s (Hessian) Letters and Journal..

     Extract from Captain Johann Ewald’s Journal, Field Jager Corps (Hessian)…..

     Extract from Major Andre’s Journal……………………………………………

     Letter from Philemon Dickinson to Gen. Washington………………………….

 

Major-General Von Steuben Leads Reconnaissance Mission to Allentown

June 1778

 

     Extract from General Von Stuben by John Palmer……………………………..

     Extract from General Von Stuben by John Palmer……………………………..

 

Brigadier-General Scott’s Encampment at Allentown - To The

Battle of Monmouth

June 1778

 

    Extract from Henry Dearborn’s Journal…………………………………………

    Extract from Henry Dearborn’s Journal…………………………………………

 

Colonel Morgan’s Riflemen along Crosswick’s Creek At Allentown

June 1778

 

     Letter from Daniel Morgan to Gen. Washington from

          Crosswick’s Bridge (5: 00 o’clock A. M.)……………………………………

     Letter from Daniel Morgan to Gen. Washington from

           Allentown (11:00 o’clock A.M.)……………………………………………..

     Washington to the President of the Continental Congress……………………….

 

Thomas Sullivan Defects From the British and Joins the Continentals

June – July 1778

 

     Extract from Thomas Sullivan’s Journal…………………………………………

     Extract from Thomas Sullivan’s Journal…………………………………………

     Extract from Thomas Sullivan’s Journal…………………………………………

     Extract from Thomas Sullivan’s Journal…………………………………………

     Jabesh Ashmore’s Pension Deposition……………………………………………

 

The Battle of Monmouth

June 28, 1778

 

     Letter from Colonel David Rhea to Gen. Washington………………………….

 

Loyalists Tried, Stripped of their Property and Exiled

1778-1784

 

     Extract from the Charles R. Hutchinson Collection-

          John Longstreet Jr., a Tory, is Stripped of his Property………………………

 

 

Arthur Donaldson Purchases Allentown Mills

Col. Joseph Height Purchases Estate and Forges at Spotswood, Middlesex County

1779

 

     Deed Records (Hutchinson) – Arthur Donaldson

          Purchases Allentown Mills……………………………………………………

     Spotswood Estate Advertised for Sale- New Jersey Gazette

          Col. Height Purchases Spotswood Estate, Middlesex County………………..

     Spotswood Forges (MiddlesexCounty) Go Out of Existence in 1780.

         Perry and Hays Petition the General Assembly………………………………..

     Letter to David Rhea, Quarter Master at Allentown from

          Moore Furman, Deputy Quarter Master General,

          State of New Jersey……………………………………………………………

 

Courts of Admiralty held at Allentown

1777,1778,1779,1780, 1781, 1783

 

     Court of Admiralty………………………………………………………………

     Admiralty Sales………………………………………………………………….

 

Colonel David Rhea Quarter Master for Monmouth County

November 1778

 

     Quarter Master’s Depot…………………………………………………………..

     List of Continental Property at Allentown………………………………………

     Extract from a List of Officers Appointed in the Department of

           the Quarter Master General………………………………………………..

     Extract from a List of Persons Employed by the

          Quarter Master General………………………………………………………

     Joshua Huddy……………………………………………………………………

 

James Rogers marries Harriet Luttrell at the home of  David Brearley - Feb. 16, 1779

February 1779

 

 

Spy Reports Mission to Kidnap David Brearley

December 1780

Mutiny of the Pennsylvania Line at Morristown- Officers Encamp at Allentown

January 1781

 

     Extract from Liberty! The American Revolution- Walter Blumenthal…………

     Extract from Women Camp Followers of the Revolution………………………

     Extract from Mutiny in January- Carl Van Doren………………………………

     Extract from Liberty! The American Revolution- Walter Blumenthal………….

 

Richard Wilgus, Militia, Shot While Keeping Guard

August 1782

 

     Extract from Battles and Skirmishes in New Jersey of the

          American Revolution by David Munn………………………………………….

     Extract from the Charles R. Hutchinson Collection……………………………….

 

 

POSTSCRIPT

 

     Major John Andre…………………………………………………………………

 

     Arthur Donaldson…………………………………………………………………

 

     Colonel Joseph Height…………………………………………………………….

 

     Major James Henderson Imlay …………………………………………………

 

     King George III of England……………………………………………………..

 

     General Elisha Lawrence…………………………………………………………

 

     Chaplain McKnight and Family…………………………………………………

 

     Lieutenant James McMichael…………………………………………………….

 

     Major William Montgomery……………………………………………………..

 

     Colonel David Rhea……………………………………………………………….

 

     Captain Thomas Rodney…………………………………………………………

 

     The Old Presbyterian Meeting House……………………………………………

 

 

MILITARY SERVICE RECORDS AND BIOGRAPHIES

 

          Quartermaster William Barton………………………………………………..

          Colonel David Brearley………………………………………………………

          Captain James Bruere…………………………………………………………

          Colonel David Hay (or Hays)…………………………………………………

          Colonel Joseph Height………………………………………………………...

          Captain William Height……………………………………………………….

          Captain David Imlay………………………………………………………….

          Major James H. Imlay………………………………………………………...

          Lieutenant William Imlay…………………………………………………….

          Colonel Elisha Lawrence…………………………………………………….

          John Longstreet, Jr……………………………………………………………

          Major William Montgomery…………………………………………………

          Dr. James Newell……………………………………………………………..

          Colonel Samuel Quay………………………………………………………...

          Colonel David Rhea Jr.………………………………………………………

          Lieutenant David Rhea (the nephew)………………………………………..

          Captain John Rhea………………………………………………………….…

          Captain Robert Rhea………………………………………………………….

          Midshipman James B. Stafford………………………………………………

          Private Jacobus Swangler…………………………………………………….

          Major Elisha Walton………………………………………………………….

          Private Garrett Wikoff………………………………………………………..

          Captain Peter Wikoff…………………………………………………………

          Private Richard Wilgus……………………………………………………….

 

 

      Officer’s List of the Monmouth Militia

      (Probably 1775)…………………………………………………………………

 

      Three Months Men Called to Guard the Coast of Monmouth County

      1778 and 1780……………………………………………………………………

 

 

MAPS

 

LETTERS

 

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

SIGNIFICANCE:    Background Statement

 

Colonial Allentown was an established agrarian village.  There were approximately 80

[unconfirmed] buildings, farms and homes in the vicinity [1], as well as two churches, two cemeteries, and stables.  Businesses included three taverns (inns), several blacksmiths, a cooper, a brew house, a fulling mill and adjacent gristmill, a farmer’s market house, a general

store, a tannery, and a pork-processing business.  In addition, there were numerous lawyers  

and judges living in the area as well as at least one doctor.   There were at least two other mills along the creek. [2]  Allentown was a stagecoach stop on several stagecoach lines that ran through town: [3] Stagecoach travel though, was erratic during the war when fighting was going on.  [4]

 

While most of Monmouth County was a hotbed of internecine fighting between Tories and Patriots, Allentown emerged firmly patriotic, and an unusually large number of Allentown men served as officers in the conflict.  Colonel Joseph Height, and Captain Peter Wikoff acted as guides to Continental forces on the way to the Battle of Monmouth.  Mr. Arthur Donaldson, who was under contract to the Pennsylvania Council of Safety to launch the ‘Cheveaux de Frize’, a system of underwater obstruction armed with iron spikes designed to damage wooden British ships that passed over them in the Delaware River, bought the Allentown mills and moved to Allentown during the middle of the war as he was continuing

his work. 

 

Two Allentown lawyers contributed to the young nation in governmental affairs.  Colonel

David Brearley was a United States Judge, participated prominently in the Federal and State’s Conventions and became a Signer of the United States Constitution.  Major James

Imlay became a member of the United States Congress.

 

With few exceptions, almost every business contributed to the war effort, providing goods

and services for the sustenance and maintenance of the Continental forces, and the Militia. [5] For example, businesses supplied pork, Indian meal, barrels, flour, - even lead.[6]

Strategic Location

Allentown was located along one of two major colonial roads across the state of New Jersey.  It was this narrow waist of New Jersey that the British hoped to hold and thus divide New York and New England from the Southern Colonies.  As determined as the British were to hold the area from Perth Amboy to Philadelphia, General Washington was determined that they would not.

 

Allentown was located—10 miles from Trenton, 14 miles from Princeton, and 14 miles from Freehold.  Astride the Old York Road, connecting New York and Philadelphia, it was used as a flanking route in both the 2nd Battle of Trenton and the Battle of Princeton.  It was also a strategic town in guarding the south flank of both Trenton and Princeton. 

 

Due to its position at the head of the road leading from the New Jersey Pinelands, during the

yearlong Battle for the Delaware River, Allentown again emerged as a strategic location.

 

General Sir Henry Clinton used the Allentown route to outflank General Washington in his march to New York across New Jersey.  Just prior to the Battle of Monmouth, it was here that Clinton reorganized the order of his march.  At Allentown, the British were compelled to alter their course to New York by Brunswick and subsequently decided to forgo the Amboys.  [7]  

 

Monmouth County Quarter Master Headquarters

Probably beginning at the start of the war, but certainly by 1778, Allentown was the

Quarter Master’s Depot for Monmouth County.   Forage, produce, and supplies sent to the armies from Monmouth County were shipped through Allentown, and it was there that the Monmouth Quarter Master had his headquarters.  In early 1777, Washington appointed a Deputy Quartermaster General posted at Allentown on special assignment.

 

Admiralty Court

Allentown became the favored place for holding courts of Admiralty for the disposition of British cargoes seized by privateers and the Militia from 1777 through 1783.

 

Encampments:  6

Major Skirmish:

                     June 24, 1778 Allen’s Town and outskirts near Ellisdale Rd. & at Eglinton

                     June 25, 1778 Allen’s Town and outskirts at Eglinton

 

[Editor’s note:  Several maps show more encampment/skirmish sites than we have yet been able to identify in this abstract. We have identified 6 Total Encampments (British and American).  For example, Colonel Carrington’s map shows 4 British operations alone. We know we are missing several.]

CHRONOLOGY:

 

Life in Colonial Allen’s Town

 

Transportation Between New York and Philadelphia

 

           Decades before the American Revolution, a network of close, prominent

           businessmen controlled the transportation route along the road linking the two

           capitals of East and West Jersey- namely Burlington City and Perth Amboy and

           further on to New York and Philadelphia. During these years, the Borden family,

           the Rogers family, the Kirkbride family, the Height family, and the Brown family,

           among others, often intermarried creating a tight kinship network that was to play

           a major role in the war of the revolution in New Jersey. Allentown was to become a

           prominent link in the network of places along this major colonial road where

           County Quarter Masters from Burlington, Monmouth, and Middlesex Counties were

           stationed. Along this road, wagonmasters worked together with the Militia changing

           directional focus as the theater of war shifted locations. Some members of these

           families gave their lives and fortunes to the patriot cause, their properties burned,

           and their mettle tested as the revolution played out.

 

           Joseph Borden, Jr. of Bordentown Assumes Control of the Stage and Boat Line

 

           “From early manhood he was engaged in active business pursuits with his father,

            upon whose death, which occurred in 1765, he assumed entire control of the stage

            and boat line between Philadelphia and New York.  These he managed, probably

            conjointly with his son, with great activity and energy until January, 1788…”  [8]

 

            Joseph Borden was later to become Colonel Joseph Borden and his son later

            became Captain Joseph Borden, prominent officers of the American Revolution.

 

           Samuel Rogers of Allentown, A Link in the Transportation Chain

 

            Joseph Height, Proprieter of the Stage Boat Tavern (later bought Allentown Mills)

 

           “The Stage Boat Tavern was another colonial public house in Burlington…on the

            river side of Delaware Ave, near the Bassnet Tavern, and became the starting and

            stopping place for “stages bound for the Amboys”.  The last colonial proprieter of

            the Stage Boat Tavern was Joseph Height.  He changed the name temporarily to

            the Sign of the General Wolfe, in honor of the man who commanded at Quebec.

            That was before 1770, when it reverted to the old name.”  [9]

 

            [Col. Joseph Height bought the mills at the center of Allentown early in the war.]

        

Monmouth County-Prelude to the Revolutionary War

 

Allen’s Town- Prelude to the Revolutionary War

 

10/22/76  Rev. Charles McKnight Forced to Resign as Pastor of the Presbyterian Church

              

                In 1740, the Reverend Charles McKnight, at the age of 27, came to New Jersey

                from Northern Ireland, (Scotch Irish) where, beginning in 1744, he served several  

                Presbyterian parishes including Cranbury and Allen’s Town. There was a contest

                between the two congregations for his residence which was ended in 1756 by

                Rev. McKnight taking sole charge of the Presbyterian Church at Allentown.   [10]

                

                In 1756, anti-British fervor was growing stronger in the Allen’s Town area.

                In deference to members of the church who were either not ready to challenge the 

                status quo, or those few that might not agree to the challenge, Rev. McKnight

                tried to hold a conservative course within the church.  Dissent and strife

                over his ‘neutral course’, however, was taking its toll.  Finally, he was forced

                to resign in 1766 after church officers stormed his house like a riotous mob

                forbidding him to say prayers for the King of England.  [11]

 

               For eight years after McKnight’s dismissal, the church had no settled pastor.

               Several pastors came to give sermons at different times, although Communion

               services were usually the responsibility of the Rev. William Tennent who came

               from the Free Hill Church, at  Freehold, Monmouth County, New Jersey.  [12]

 

               Later, Reverend McKnight became a fervent revolutionary, was wounded at the 

               Battle of Princeton and eventually lost his life in the struggle for independence. 

               See; POSTSCRIPT Section of this manuscript for more information regarding the

               life of Rev. McKnight.

 

         

DATE    David Brearley Jailed by Provincial Authorities:

 

 

1771              David Brearley’s Law Office Burns

              

Blockade of Boston Harbor

Imlaystown and Allentown assist Bostonians

July, 1775

 

                 On December 16, 1773, colonists, disguised as Mohawk Indians, went onboard

                 ships in the Boston Harbor and threw 342 tea chests overboard valued at $90,000.

                 Benjamin Franklin along with over 100 merchants wanted to pay damages for

                 the ‘Boston Tea Party’ organized by Samuel Adams, and others, but the Whigs

                 prevailed and England retaliated by passing the ‘Intolerable Acts’ which closed the

                 Port of Boston.  Americans formed the 1st Continental Congress to consider united 

                 resistance.[13]

 

                 Paul Revere, an organizer of the ‘Tea Party’ (and one of the ‘Indians’) rode to

                 Philadelphia and New York City with word of the ‘Boston Port Bill’ and asked

                 for help.[14]

 

7/27/75     Larry R. Gerlach---Prologue to Independence:

 

               “The response to the request for food and funds, fairly widespread overall, was

                 enthusiastic in some parts of the province.  Such was the case in Monmouth

                 County where on July 27 notices appeared asking residents to deliver donations

                 of grain or money to either Abraham Hendricks in Imlay’s Town or Robert

                 Rhea in Allenstown.  John Burrows, a prominent local trader, offered the use

                 of his sloop to transport the contributions to Massachusetts.  In October

                 Bostonians received fourteen bushels of rye and fifty barrels of rye meal from

                 Monmouth along with the promise of  “a considerable addition” if necessary to

                 enable them to “stem the torrent of Ministerial and parliamentary vengence.”” [15]

               

               “As the Boston Gazette observed: “ What can better manifest the union of the

                 Colonies, and their firm affection for and sympathy for each other, than these

                 donations; or place in a more striking point of light, the inhumanity of that

                 Parliament which has made such large and distant charities absolutely necessary

                 to preserve thousands of inhabitants from starving.”” [16]

 

                 [Editor’s note:  Robert and Mary Rhea owned the fulling mill and grist mill at the

                 center of Allen’s Town and lived near town in Upper Freehold Township.  John

                 Burrows was a great patriot of Matawan, Monmouth County.  In late 1780, John

                 Burrows Jr. was named Marshall of the Admiralty Court at Allentown.  [17] ]

 

Pennsylvania Council of Safety Resolves to Launch ‘Cheveaux de Frize’

March, 1776

 

                The ‘Cheveaux de Frize’ were a system of underwater obstructions armed

                with hefty iron-clad spikes and chained secret passages that were launched

                just below the surface of the water in the Delaware River, designed to damage

                wooden British ships that passed over them.

 

3/13/76    Minutes of the Pennsylvania Council of Safety:

               

               “Resolved that Arthur Donaldson be employed to launch the Cheveaux de Frize

                 built at Gloucester [New Jersey].”  [18]

 

                [Editor’s note:  Arthur Donaldson was a master machinist of some note. While

                continuing his work on the Cheveaux de Frize, he bought the mills at the center of

                of Allentown, on March 12, 1779,  as noted under that date in this abstract.

                According to the Charles R. Hutchinson papers, Arthur Donaldson moved to

                the area around the time of his purchase of the Allentown mills.  Additionally,

                in the papers of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General, Arthur

                Donaldson is listed as a ‘Purchaser of Forage by the Bushel’ employed by

                the Monmouth County Quarter Master at Allentown, N.J. during the time after

                he purchased the mills.]

 

Loyalists Muster at Waln’s Mills in Upper Freehold, Monmouth County

May or

June/76

 

                “…Thomas Fowler, a seemingly malleable rank and file member of the

                Woodward gang who after capture turned informant, named names, and

                furnished detailed testimony before the Council of Safety.  Fowler revealed

                that he first met the “Club Men” at Waln’s mills in Upper Freehold at what

                was probably either a regular or a special militia muster held in May or June,

                1776…The mill complex was a likely place for the muster because it was

                centrally located; moreover, the wealthy Quaker merchant Richard Waln,

                who owned the mills, had decidedly pro-British leanings.”  [19]

 

Burlington and Monmouth County Militia Sent to Monmouth County

Civil War, Loyalist Activity and the Attempted Suppression Thereof

June, 1776

 

               There were three attempts by force in the early part of the summer of 1776

               to defeat Loyalist insurrection in Monmouth County. On June 1st, an expedition

               into the county to arrest the Tory disaffected was not completely successful

               since eastern Monmouth County was dependant on British-held New York

               for commerce, and because the New Jersey Pinelands became a refuge for the

               the disaffected.  Some of the disaffected were members of religious minorities

               who felt protected by the British.  Others later felt personally wronged by Patriot

               actions against them.  Still others were of the anti-social type who robbed

               excusing their actions by political excuse.  [20]

     

                                                                                                                       

6/3/76     Record of the Provincial Congress:

 

             “Whereas authentick [sic] information has been received by this congress that 

               a number of disaffected persons have assembled in the County of Monmouth,

               preparing by force of arms to oppose the cause of American freedom and to

               join the British troops for the destruction of this country: and it being highly

               necessary  that immediate measures be taken to subdue these dangerous in-

               surgents: it is therefore unanimously resolved that Colonel Charles Read,

               Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Forman, and Major Joseph Height do take two

               hundred of the Militia of Burlington County, and two hundred of the Militia

               of Monmouth, and proceed without delay, in order to quell the aforesaid

               insurrection, and to disarm and take prisoners whomsoever they shall find      

               assembled with the intent to oppose the friends of American freedom: which

               prisoners so taken, they that forthwith bring before this congress: and the

               said officers are empowered to take such measures as they shall think

               necessary for this service.”  [21]

 

              Charles Read (IV) was Colonel of the 2nd Regiment of the Burlington

              County Militia.  Thomas Reynolds was Lieutenant-Colonel and

              Joseph Height was Major of the 2nd Regiment  of the Burlington County

              Militia.  Charles Read was the eldest son of the great ironmaster Charles Read

              of Burlington County who founded Tauton Furnace, Etna Furnace, Atison

              Forge, and Basto Furnace in the New Jersey Pinelands.  [22]

 

              By 1771, Charles Read (III). was experiencing financial difficulties due    

              to the expansion of his enterprises.  In November, 1774, the creditors  

              of Charles Read met at the house of Joseph Height,  in Burlington. He died   

              on December 27, 1774.  [23]

 

              Charles Read (IV). was interested in the ironworks with his father. Governor

              Livingston, on March 15, 1777, wrote to the Legislature that Charles Read Jr.(IV)

              had submitted to the enemy.  He had been taken prisoner in Burlington County

              on January 21st 1777, and later imprisoned in Philadelphia.  Due to the disloyalty

              of Read, Thomas Reynolds then became Colonel and Joseph Height was promoted

              into Reynolds’ position.  [24]

 

              Colonel Samuel Forman and Joseph Height married into the patriotic Rogers family

              Allen’s Town. (See insert in this manuscript for the Rogers family revolutionary

              wartime geneology.)

 

6/6/76     Extract of a Letter from Samuel Tucker, Esq. to Hon. John Hancock, at Trenton:

 

             “P.S. Colonel Brearley is just now arrived from Allentown, which is in the neighborhood of the Monmouth insurgents.  He supposed that not more than one hundred have been over together.  They had confederated under oath – at least a part of them.  About thirty are flying on board the enemy fleet, our militia in pursuit, and numbers of the lesser offenders coming back to their duty upon encouragement we thought proper to give such as shall appear to have been deluded.  The leaders, if they can be apprehended, will be punished.  If they escape, some of them have left estates.  The Colonel at Shrewsbury has offered to resign, making great complaints of the backwardness ‘to say no worse’– as he expresses himself – of his people, ‘so few of whom,’ he tells us, ‘are ready to turn out, (hiding themselves and deserting their homes), whenever he marches to defend the shores,’ that he is discouraged.  As we hope the rifle battalion will have little remaining to detain them in the upper end of the county, we have ventured to encourage him with the expectation of their assisting him at the lower end.  The Freehold and Middleton people, who form one large battalion, are, we believe very hearty, and will assist as much as possible, both at Shrewsbury and the neighborhood of Sandy Hook.” [25]

 

              [Editor’s note: Samuel Tucker was President of the Provincial Congress.  Colonel David Brearley, a young Allentown lawyer, was later Chief Justice of the Supreme

               Court of New Jersey, a United States Judge, member of the Federal and State

               Conventions, and a Signer of the United States Constitution.]

             

6/26/76  Militia Ordered to Monmouth County

 

             “On June 26, 1776, the Colonial Congress of New Jersey ordered two companies                                                                     

               from Burlington County to proceed into Monmouth County to apprehend any

               insurgents (Tories) who were trying to interfere with plans to defend Monmouth

               from invasion by the British.  The British were reported off shore on June 28,

               when they had taken possession of Sandy Hook.  Colonel Joseph Borden of

               Bordentown furnished the wagons to transport Militia from Pennsylvania to Mon-

               mouth County to defend the inhabitants from the British.  A threatened invasion

               of the Jersey Coast did not materialize as expected, but the militia had plenty of

               action in and around New York which was finally taken by the British in the

               fall of 1776.  The British established strong positions at New Brunswick, Princeton

               and Trenton.”  [26]

 

               [Editor’s note:  Joseph Borden operated a stage coach  route that stopped  in, and

               ran through, Allentown. “The stages were wagons with low sides and benches

               on the floor of the wagon.  A crude canvas cover with canvas or leather side curtain

               protected the passengers from the weather.  The wagons were unsprung… and…

               passengers suffered broken arms and legs due to being tossed about or out of the

               wagon.  Stages overturned occasionally.”  [27]]

 

6/26/76  David J. Fowler – Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders:

               The Pine Robber Phenenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War

 

            “ On June 26, the Provincial Congress directed Charles Read to proceed into

               Monmouth County with the militia of Burlington County and apprehend

               insurgents and other disaffected persons.  Several of the suspected insurgents

               were residents of Freehold and Upper Freehold Townships…..who were soon

               to figure prominently in the first of the Pine Robber episodes.” [28]

 

             “Colonel Read was specifically directed to apprehend the reluctant [Moses]

               Ivins and [Richard] Robins [affluent farmers of Upper Freehold Township], and to

               deliver them to the jailkeeper at Gloucester, a place deemed more secure than

               Monmouth Courthouse.  In addition, Read was also directed to take into custody

               Anthony Woodward, Jr. and Thomas Lewis Woodward, two locally prosperous

               Quaker cousins from Upper Freehold Township, and bring them before either

               the Council of Safety or the Provincial Congress….On August 10, Anthony

               Woodward, Jr. had the dubious distinction of being one of the first persons in

               New Jersey to have his estate inventoried (the first step toward eventual

               confiscation) because he absconded from his home and joined the enemy.

               Meanwhile, on August 20, Moses Ivins, Richard Robins, and Thomas Lewis

               Woodward were each fined in proportion to the severity of their offenses. [29]

 

Loyalists From Shrewsbury, Monmouth County Join British Forces

July, 1776

 

7/2/76     British Army Lands on Staten Island

 

              “After the British army landed unoppossed on Staten Island,… 60 armed loyalists  

                from the neighborhood of Shrewsbury joined the British and it was reported that   

                as many as 500 more armed men… were ready to follow.  Rumors circulated that

                a considerable number of Tories had embodied themselves together and were

                “encamped in the Cedar Swamps” [New Jersey Pine Barrens]  waiting to link up

                with the redcoats.”  [30]

 

7/3/76     Provincial Congress Again Orders Militia to Monmouth County:

 

               “In response to this dangerous state of affairs, both the Committee of Observation

                and the Committee of Safety of Monmouth County petitioned the Provincial

                Congress to take some decisive action against the disaffected in their district.

                Consequently, on July 3 the Provincial Congress again ordered Colonel Read,

                together with Lt. Col. Samuel Forman,… to pursue, disarm, and take prisoner

                the “dangerous insurgents” in Monmouth.”  [31]

            

Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment Encamp at Allentown

July, 1776

 

7/-/76    Continental Congress Appeals For a Rifle Battalion to Assist Militia

 

             “The alarming situation in Monmouth also came to the attention of the

              Continental Congress, which appealed to the Pennsylvania Council of Safety

                     to dispatch a rifle battalion to assist the Burlington and Monmouth militia in   quelling the insurrection.”  [32]

 

7/7/76    Lieutenant James McMichael’s Diary:

 

             “Arrived at Bordentown at sunrise, and were ordered to proceed to Amboy.  At 2

                  P.M. we marched.  When near to Allentown, Capt. Farmer’s gun went off        accidentally and shot a soldier of his own company.  Reached Allentown at 6 P.M.

               and encamped.”  [33]

 

               [Editor’s note: James McMichael entered the service as sergeant in Captain John

               Marshalls’s company, Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment, Colonel Samuel Miles commanding.  On July 18th, 1776, at Amboy, he joined Gen. Mercer’s Brigade,

               Continental Line, and shortly after engaged in action on Long Island.   [34]  See; POSTSCRIPT section of this abstract for more on Lieut. James McMichael.]

 

Groundwork Laid To Dispossess Loyalist Refugees   

August 1776

 

8/2/76    The Convention of New Jersey (successor of the Provincial Congress)

 

               The civil war in Monmouth County was undoubtably one of the reasons New

               Jersey was one of the first places to punish and retaliate against political

               dissent.  [35]

 

               “Well in advance of the Continental Congress’s resolution on the subject

                of November 27, 1777, on August 2, 1776 the Convention of New Jersey

                (the successor of the Provincial Congress) authorized county committees to

                inventory and appraise the real and personal estates of Loyalist Refugees,

                sell the perishables, and keep the proceeds safe until further notice.”  [36]

 

Balance of Power in New Jersey Shifts to the British and Loyalist Friends

August, 1776

 

8/27/76  American Defeat at Long Island Emboldens Loyalists

 

              The devastating defeat of the Americans at Long Island on August 27th

              encouraged the ensuing shift in the balance of power in New Jersey to the British

              and their allies. There were reports of Loyalists meeting in the woods to form    associations again to assist the British.  About 3 months after this defeat, Continental   Forces were in retreat, being driven in a westwardly direction  

              across the state of New Jersey.  Loyalism now spread a wider net – into the patriot stronghold of Freehold, Monmouth County and the contiguous areas of Upper Freehold Township as patriots were cut off from communication with Continental forces. [37]

              

 

Arthur Donaldson Accused and Exonerated of  Betraying the Cheveaux de Frize

September, 1776 

 

               While continuing his work on the ‘cheveaux de frize’, Arthur Donaldson bought

               the mills at the center of Allentown and moved to the village in 1779. During a time

               of crisis in New Jersey in 1776, charges of betrayal and counterbetrayal were

               indicative of the fear and distrust in those dark days.

              

 

9/12/76   Samuel Stelle Smith – Fight for the Delaware 1777:

             

             “As early as September 12, 1776, Benjamin Randolph, the Philadelphia cabinet-

               maker, and frequent host to General and Mrs. Washington, was accused of making

               a statement that “Arthur Donaldson had been sent for to New York, by his

               Excellency General Washington, under pretense of business, but in reality to

               confine him for being concerned in the late conspiracy discovered there, and that

               he had furnished or attempted to furnish the enemy of draughts [drawings] of the

               cheveaux de frise & c. of the River Delaware.”  [38]

 

            “Arthur Donaldson claimed the statement reputed to Randolph was, “as scandalous

              and infamous a falsehood as ever was hatched.” Randolph denied he ever made

              such a statement, but Donaldson produced witnesses who said he did…Donaldson

              demanded a retraction and apology.  The argument continued through letters to the

              Pennsylvania Evening Post of October 1 and October 5.”  [39]

 

            “October 5…appeared a letter to Benjamin Randolph from General Washington, as

              follows,

        

            “Sir,

              In answer to your letter of the third inst. I can truly say, to the best of my

              recollection, I never heard you mention the name of Arthur Donaldson, or that

              he was directly or indirectly concerned in giving drafts of the cheveaux de frise, or

              other information to the enemy.  In justice therefore to your request, I cannot

              withhold this certificate, and am

 

                                                                                                   Sir, your very humble servant,

                                                                                                                   G. Washington.””  [40]

              

             “With Washington’s letter in publication, the controversy cooled.  Donaldson

               resumed his work on the Cheveaux de frise and continued it up to 1784 when,

               after the war, the Council of Safety [Pennsylvania] voted money to Arthur

               Donaldson and Levi Hollingsworth “to be by them applyed in removing or

               destroying the cheveaux de frize in the River Delaware.”  [41]

 

             

               Samuel Stelle Smith concludes that from the evidence available, that there

               was no betrayal of consequence regarding the cheveaux de frise.  There were

               more serious charges of betrayal later leveled against Robert Whyte, a

               Member of The Pennsylvania Council of Safety and Chairman of the Committee

               on the Cheveaux de Frise. This is certainly understandable since Robert Whyte

               defected to the British around the time the British occupied Philadelphia.  [42]

 

 

Pennsylvania Council of Safety Corresponds With Allentown Committee

October 1776

                

10/14/76  Extract - Pennsylvania Council of Safety:

 

 

                                                                                      IN COUNCIL OF SAFETY,

                                                                                      PHILAD’A, October 14, 1776

 

              GENTLEMEN: The Council of Safety for the State of Pennsylvania have taken

              the Liberty to request you to afford Capt. Boyd such assistance with your advice

              of otherways as the business he goes upon may require, the nature of w’ch he will

              communicate to you at large.

 

               From your known attachment to the cause of America, we are induced to trouble you with this request, as we are well assured of your readiness to render any

               essential service to your Country.

                          By Order of the Council,

                                                                               I am Y’rs, & etc.,

                                                                               TY. MATLACK, Sec’y.

               To Messrs. JAMES SERLS,

                                  SAMUEL BREESE,

                                  Isaac RODGERS, Esq., Allentown.

 

 

               P. S.  Mr. Boyd is requested to call upon Colo. Jno. Coxe, at Burlington, who

               will inform him of the Names of gentlemen at or near Shrewsbury to apply to

               for advice & assistance.[43]

 

 

Colonel Joseph Height Purchases Allentown Mills:

November 1776

 

11/4/76   Deed Records (Hutchinson) -  Colonel Joseph Height Purchases Allentown Mills:

 

Beginning in 1767, the Allentown mills were variously owned by Robert Rhea of Allentown – Yeoman, David Rhea of Allentown – Merchant, and John Rhea, City of Philadelphia – Merchant. [44] 

 

On November 4, 1776, Robert Rhea of Allentown, and Mary, his wife, sold:

 

                    34 acres, gristmill, tenement

                    2 ½ acres, fulling mill

                    & c …

7 ½ acres,  Together with the fulling mill, Press screw Copper Tender yard and utensils

               

            to Joseph Height, Burlington, Innholder. [45]

 

            Robert Rhea and David Rhea were brothers.  John, or ‘Johnathan’ Rhea was

            the son of Robert Rhea.  Although the brothers lived in the Allentown area, 

            the Rhea Family Estate is located within the Monmouth Battlefield State Park.

            Robert Rhea retired to the Family Estate prior to the Battle of Monmouth.  Mary

            Rhea, (the sister of David and Robert) was married to Major William Montgomery,                   

            son of Robert Montgomery who was the owner of ‘Eglinton’, at New Canton.

            David Rhea became Quartermaster for Monmouth County, stationed at Allentown.

           

           

            Colonel Joseph Height was the son of John Height.  Hightstown, New Jersey in 

            Mercer County, was named for John Height.  Colonel Height kept an Inn at 

            Burlington called the ‘Stage Boat’. [46] 

 

            Paul Clayton, an Imlaystown, Upper Freehold Township, farmer, who retired to

            Allentown, stated that Colonel Height was making cannon balls behind the mill

            and was sneaking them to Freehold in wagons filled with sacks from the gristmill:

            all destined for grain barges at South Amboy. The wagons were discovered since

            the cannon balls were so heavy that the wagon wheels were sinking deeply into

the ground. After that, he had to start sneaking them through Hightstown.  When 

asked where he had received this information, Mr. Clayton stated that he had   

researched it in his grandfather’s letters, and that the letters were later destroyed in a  

storm.  Mr. Clayton died in 1996, at the age of at least 103.  In 1780, a Joseph

                 Clayton was Forage Master at Allentown, Monmouth County. [47]

 

 A Fort is Built or Occupied by Militia Forces

 

               Extract - John Raum - History of New Jersey in Two Volumes

 

               [Editor’s note: Referring to Jinnie Jackson’s sister…]

 

             “Another sister married a Mr. Swangler who lived in the “old fort” at Allentown.

               Her name was Sarah.  They removed to Broad Street, Mill Hill, (then called

               Queensbury) …and lived there throughout the Revolutionary war.” [48]

 

               By tradition, later, when British forces entered Allentown on the way to the

               Battle of Monmouth in June of 1778, militia forces temporarily abandoned

                this fort.

 

               Jacobus Swangler – Military Service Records

 

              “Three Months Men called to guard the coast of Monmouth County, 1778 and

1780.    Name, Jacobus Swangler, Rank, Private, Captain James Bruere’s

Company (Allentown), Major James H. Imlay’s Battalion, Colonel Elisha

Lawrence’s Regiment.” [49]

 

                [Editor’s note: Jacobus Swangler also shows up early on a Burlington County  

                Militia roster. Col. Elisha Lawrence was a Quarter Master at Allentown.]

 

 

Eastern and Middle Monmouth County is Overrun (Freehold under Tory Control)

November 1776

 

11/23/76     Washington Orders to Colonel David Forman of Monmouth County

 

              On November 23, 1776, General Washington ordered Col. David Forman

              to attack any gathering of armed men and to take Loyalists prisoners, an

              impossible order even for Col. David Forman and his militia.

             

 

11/30/76   British Offer ‘Pardon’ in Return for Taking an Oath to the King

 

 

Local Tories Terrorize Upper Freehold

December 1776

          

                   Isaac Rogers, a member of a great patriot family, and a resident of Allentown,

                   was visited by Pine Robbers, the trauma of which would eventually kill him.

             He was the son of Samuel and Mary Rogers. His brother and business partner, 

 Samuel (the son of Samuel), financed the 2nd establishment of the Four

 Battalions of State Troops in 1778 prior to General Clinton’s ‘March across the

                   Jerseys’ to the Battle of Monmouth.  Samuel and Isaac’s father, Samuel, built

             the 1st mill on  property which is now a part of  Walnford Park in Upper Freehold

                   Township in Monmouth County, New Jersey about 4 miles from Allentown. 

                   For more information on the Rogers Family, see A PATRIOT FAMILY on the

                   following pages.

 

             The Woodward Family and Moses Ivins Rob Isaac Rogers

 

           “At Allentown, the chief village in Upper Freehold Township, Isaac Rogers

             was visited by a group that consisted of Anthony Woodward, Jr., his nephew

             Samuel, his two cousins Jesse and Black Nat, Jesse’s son John, Richard Robins

             and several others.  Anthony, Jr., “who appeared to be the principal,” demanded

             the pork in Rogers’ storehouse.  When one of Rogers clerks suggested that he

             weigh the pork before surrendering it, the Tories would not allow it, saying that

             it was Continental pork” an act of pillage which would later haunt Jesse Woodward

                   and Moses Ivins both legally and financially.”  [50] 

 

                  Anthony Woodward Jr., from Upper Freehold Township, Monmouth County

            was, according to the New Jersey Council of Safety Minutes, a member of a “cell of

            Tories organized around a prolific, prosperous and locally prominent family of Quaker farmers named Woodward who were settled in an arc across central New Jersey extending from Freehold and Upper Freehold Townships in Monmouth County 

            to New Hanover and Chesterfield Townships in Burlington….  Several of the Woodward ringleaders owned plantations near Waln’s mills a place they frequented

            in the prewar period. ” [51]  Waln’s Mills were located about 4 miles below Allentown

            near the Monmouth County/Burlington County border.

 

            Moses Ivins owned a small amount of property in Allentown village.  [The editor’s

             are currently researching more information on his other possible holdings.]

                    

12/11/76   William Imlay Robbed at Home and Threatened by Loyalists

 

           Extract – Correspondence of the Executive of New Jersey

           Governor Livingston Papers – Deposition of William Imlay #1.

 

 

                                                                                      “[Borden Town] 12 April 1777

             New Jersey Burlington

 

             William Imlay of the Township of Upper Freehold in the County of Monmouth

             & State of New Jersey aforesaid being duly sworn on the holy Evangelists of

             Almighty God deposeth and saith, that on or about the eleventh Day of December

              last Jesse Woodward of the Township aforesaid came to the House of this

              Deponent, where he did receive into his Hands two Guns and some Powder taken

              by Richard Robins from said House.

 

             This Deponent further saith, that said Jesse Woodward at the same Time expressed

             himself as follows vizt. now the Staff is in our Hands, adding that he came by

             Order of General How to take his the said Deponent’s Arms from him. This depo-

             nent also saith that said Woodward was armed when he came to his House, and

             further the said Woodward in Conjunction with the said Robins did impress him 

             the said Deponent with his Horses and Waggon into the british Service, the said

             Woodward saying at the Time, that if the Deponent did not agree to go to Trenton

             with him, the Light Horse would soon be after him and force him.

 

             This Deponent further saith that he saw the said Woodward at Trenton with the

             Enemy on the Evening of the same Day where he heard him boast that he had

             disarmed sixteen or seventeen of the Rebels…

 

                                                                                                                         William Imlay

 

             Sworn in Council of Safety 12 April 1777 Before me

 

                                                                                              William Livingston  President ”  [52]

 

 

 

                In a second deposition before William Livingston at Burlington City on the same

                day, William Imlay elaborated.. “That this deponent afterwards saw the said

                Robins with the enemy at Trenton, where he the said Robins did publicly damn this

                This Deponent for an old Presbyterian saying he was the cause of all this

                bloodshed.”  [53]

 

                Richard Robins was charged with high treason on April 17, 1777.  He was

                committed to the Sussex County jail, later released and became a Loyalist refugee.

                After the war, he emigrated to Canada. [54] 

 

 

     The Battle of Trenton

      December 26, 1776

 

 

Colonel Von Donop Encamps at Allentown---Prior To The

2nd Battle of Trenton / Battle of Princeton

December 1776

 

12/27/76 Captain Johann Ewald’s Journal, Field Jager Corps (Hessian):

 

             “Ot [sic] daybreak, the weather changed rapidly, which is often the case in this

               part of the world.  Since no horse was roughshod this hindrance caused delay

               so that I first caught up with Donop Corps at 10 A.M., 27th 1776 at Crosswicks

were Grenadier Battalion and Capt. Wreden’s Jager Co. were also arriving from Bordentown and Field’s Crossing.  In the afternoon the march continued to Allentown, where the corps arrived in the evening and took up quarters in devastated and abandoned houses which numbered about eighty[55]

 

   According to von Donop’s Diary, his men took the York Road from Crosswicks

    to Allentown: other troops may have taken a different route joining them later at Allentown. According to Faden’s, Map of the Jersies, 1777. Von Donop entered

   Allentown along the road that ran behind the Presbyterian Church, the precurser of the road currently named High Street.  From there, they took the Old Trenton Road to Kingston.  The Trenton Road exited Allentown near the current alignment of Church Street.  It should be noted here that Faden’s Map of the Jersey’s probably

   indicates the route of the later troops adjoining von Donop at Allentown. The famous Faden (British) map shows General George Washington’s route to the

   Battle of Princeton going through Allentown.  As historians now understand,

   Washington did take a route near the Trenton Road,  as von Donop did-

   but they were coming from opposite directions. The Trenton Road followed

   roughly the path of Hamilton Ave. in what is now Hamilton Township, Mercer County,  and at the other end entered Allentown.  Although Gen. Washington

   came from the opposite direction along the Trenton Road to Princeton it is     interesting that the Continental Army successfully fooled the British into thinking

     that Washington took the route through Allentown at the opposite end of the Trenton   

     Road.  At its other end, The Trenton Road was sometimes referred to as the 

     Allentown Road. The York Road was populated by spies from both armies and was  

     often used to fake out the strength of opposing forces.

 

 

12/27/76  Samuel Stelle Smith - The Battle of Princeton

 

             “Colonel Carl Emil Ulrich von Donop, with his three battalion brigade of          

               1500 Hessian grenadiers supported by the British 42nd regiment or Scottish

               Black Watch, and two companies of Jaegers, had been stationed at Bordentown

               New Jersey, 15 miles south of Trenton”…”Princeton, 30 miles away, was Col.

               Von Donop’s closest base, and he decided on a forced march “ to Princeton via

               Allentown.”  As soon as his brigade could be reunited, von Donop continued his

               march via Crosswicks.  Enroute, he sent off a letter to his immediate superior,

               Brigadier General Alexander Leslie at Princeton, asking for instructions.

               Von Donop’s force arrived at Allentown, on the 27th, in the afternoon.

 

               At Allentown, Colonel von Donop received a letter from Major General James

Grant at Brunswick (now New Brunswick), which had been designated British general headquarters in New Jersey. The letter requested Colonel Von Donop to   stay at Allentown or near there until a decision was made as to the next move.

               Shortly after receiving General Grant’s letter, Col. Von Donop received one from

               Gen. Leslie at Princeton dated Saturday morning 2 o’clock a.m. the 28th ordering

Von Donop to proceed to Princeton immediately as a “force of 1400 rebels landed          at Trenton yesterday and …they and another party were to attack the Troops here.

 

General Leslie’s letter to Col. Von Donop reached Allentown at 8 a.m. on the 28th   and von Donop hurriedly sent off his heavy baggage to Cranbury in the direction of   Brunswick, protected by 100 men and one cannon. Von Donop, with the rest of his   force, then marched for Princeton via what is now Robbinsville, Hamilton Square and Clarksville…” [56]

 

 “Leslie was ordered to occupy Kingston and to send the redoubtable 42nd Foot to Rocky Hill, with outposts in the direction of Pluckemin, while the light infantry

moved out on the Trenton Road to screen Donop’s march from Allentown.  But

the next day, Kingston was occupied by two of Donop’s battalions…” [57]

 

[Editor’s note:  Current Route #526 in Washington Township, Mercer County

(Church Street in Allentown Borough), was the old Trenton Road in 1756.[58]  For a period during the war, the section of the road in Allentown was called Paine St. after Thomas Paine of Bordentown, New Jersey; the author of ‘Common Sense’.  The Trenton Road went from Allentown to Hamilton Square (where it connected with the old Quaker Road to Princeton) and continued along to Trenton- roughly following the route of the current Hamilton Ave. in Mercer County.]

 

Gen. Cadwalader’s Forces Encamp at Allentown--- Prior to The

2nd Battle of Trenton / Battle of Princeton

December 1776

  

 

12/28/76  Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary:

 

              “We left Burlington at 4 o’clock this morning and passed on the Great Road to

                Bordentown….In the afternoon the General was informed that the enemy were

                at Allentown about 8 miles off, upon which, about dusk, he ordered the light

                troops to push forward and two battalions to follow.  We went on about 4 miles

                to a little town called Crosswicks, chiefly, or all wooden houses built at the

                crossing of several roads.  When we arrived there we received information that

                the enemy had left Allentown that morning and had gone forward about 8 miles

                further to a place called Hide town.

 

                Some of the militia Colonels applied to our infantry to make a forced march that

                night and overhaul them.  We had been on duty four Days and nights, making

                forced marches without six hours sleep in the whole time;  Whereupon the Infantry 

                officers of all the companies unanimously declared it was madness to attempt it;

                for it would use up all our brave men not one of whom had yet given out but were

                dreadfully fatigued.  However a few Riflemen and fresh men were sent off, and

                the Light troops were to reinforce them in the morning.” [59]

 

                 [Editor’s note: ‘Hide town’ refers to Hightstown, New Jersey, currently a part

                 of Mercer County.]

 

12/29/76   Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary:

 

                “This morning about sunrise we set out to reinforce the troops that went forward

                  last night, we marched on through Allentown without our stopping, and about

                  a half a mile beyond met the troops returning, with about 30 Bullocks and five

                  tories.

 

                  They had been forward about 10 miles to a place called Cranberry, but the enemy

                  having information that our army was pursuing them closely, left that place

                  about 10 o’clock at night in great precipitation, whereupon we all returned to

                  Allentown and went into quarters.

 

                  This is a little village of wooden houses, but indifferently built on both sides of

                  the road at a mill about 4 miles from Crosswicks.

 

                  In the afternoon was brought in the body of Isaac Pearson, who being found in

                  the house with the other tories that were taken, fled off.  They shot two balls over

                  over his head to stop him, but as he persisted in making off, the next two were

                  ordered to fire at him and one of their balls passed thro’ his breast and he fell

                  dead on the spot.  He is said to be very active in favor of the enemy.”  [60]

 

Issac Pearson was a resident of Nottingham Township, Burlington County

(Mercer County was not yet formed).  He served actively in the Provincial

Congress in 1775-1776.  He was a Freeholder of Burlington County and Clerk

                 of Nottingham Township.  [61]

 

                  Thomas Rodney’s diary comment that Allentown was ‘indifferently 

                  built on both sides of the road’ was probably related to the fact that the

                  Old Shrewsbury Path Road and the Old York Road during the revolution           co-existed. After the revolution, focus seems shifted to the Old York

                  Road as new homes were built.

 

            

 12/29/76   Samuel Stelle Smith – The Battle of Princeton:

 

                 “Cadwalader also felt the need of additional information.  Shortly after he had

                   arrived at Crosswicks, about 500 men of Cadwalader’s force pushed through

                  Allentown and as far north as Cranbury, then pulled back to Allentown.” [62]

 

12/29/76   Alfred Hoyt Bill – The Campaign of Princeton, 1776 – 1777:

 

                “On the following day, Sunday, December 29th, Mifflin came over with sixteen

                  hundred more of the Pennsylvania militia and Captain Proctor’s battery and

                  established his headquarters at Bordentown.  Cadwalader, whose force now

                  comprised twenty-one hundred men, two brass six pounders, and two three

                  pounders of iron, moved out to Crosswicks, hence to keep up the good work

                  of harassing and confusing the enemy by means of strong and daring scouting

                  parties, which he had begun soon after landing on the Jersey shore.

 

                  It was on one of these that so discomfited Donop’s detachment on its march

                  to Princeton.  Another party arrived at Cranbury with the intention of pushing

                  to New Brunswick on horseback and liberating General Lee, who was in con-

                  finement there.  They had understood that the place was now held by only two

                  hundred and fifty men.  But scouts brought back word that the garrison had been

                  reinforced by fifteen hundred, and they fell back to Allentown for the first

                  day’s rest Cadwalader had given his men since they crossed the river  [63]

 

12/29/76   William S. Stryker—The Battles of Princeton and Trenton:

 

               “Soon after the arrival of the Americans in Bordentown, a party of 100 riflemen,

                 100 light infantry and 100 active young men, picked from the militia, was sent

                 toward Crosswicks and on the old York road to harass the rear of Colonel von

                 Donop’s column, which rumor said was moving slowly, being encumbered with

                 much plunder and baggage.

 

                 On December 29 the advance detachment were reinforced by another strong

                 body of militia, and they pressed on through Allentown as far as Cranberry.

                 They did not succeed in reaching the main body of Col. Von Donop’s corps,

                 but overtook only the straggling parties.  At Cranberry they received orders

                 to return, and that same night marched back as far as Allentown.  A few

                 prisoners were made by these detachments on reconnaissance, a German officer

                 was killed and a standard of the Bernberg company of one of the Hessian

                 regiments was captured.  This standard is still preserved.”  [64]

 

                [Editor’s note: A standard is a flagpole.]

 

12/30/76   Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary:

              

                                                                                                                      Allentown

 

               “We sent out several parties to-day to press horses and wagons and bring in

                 provisions in which they suceeded very well, and the Light troops had the

                 Day to rest here, the main army being now at Crosswicks, having reached

                 there yesterday.

 

                 To-day a circumstance happened that seems to have attached the Philadelphia

                 officers of the Light infantry Regiment to me very much.

 

                 Captain Francis Wade a vain blustering man of one of the city Battalions was

                 appointed quartermaster General.  Each Company of the Light Infantry have a

                 neat light wagon for their baggage, and Capt. Wade ordered his wagon master to

                 take these wagons to go and bring in forage, the Light Infantry officers refused

                 them, but the quartermaster General sending back a peremptory order to seize

                 them, Capt. George Henry the superior officer of the Philadelphia Light

                 Infantry, submitted to the requisition, but all the other officers… came to me and

                 I therefore went out and ordered the wagon master, who was putting in the horses

                 to desist, and to inform the Q. M. G. that he should not have one of them, that

                 we were subject, every moment to be ordered out on parties and should not part

                 with our wagons.  The Q. M. G. was much offended, but could not help himself,

                 and the officers were much pleased with my conduct.”  [65]

 

12/30/76   Letter From Thomas Rodney to Caesar Rodney

 

                                                                     Allen’s Town, in Jersey,…Dec. 30th, 1776

 

                “The Hessians, from the General to the common soldier, curse and imprecate the

                  war, and swear they were sent here to be slaughtered; that they will never leave

                  New-York again til they sail for Europe.  Jersey will be the most Whiggest

                  Colony on the Continent: the very Quakers declare for taking up arms.  You

                  cannot imagine the distress of this country.  They have stripped every body

                  almost, without distinction- even of all their clothes, and have beat and abused

                  men, women and children, in the most cruel manner ever heard of…”  [66]

 

12/31/76   Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary:

 

               “Last night Gen. Cadwalader received information that General Lee was a

                 prisoner in Brunswick under a guard of 250 men and this morning by day light

                 our Light Troops were ordered to make a forced march to-day, and surprise

                 the town in the dead of night, and bring him off.

 

                 We accordingly pushed on to Cranberry from whence we were to go on horse-

                 back after night and execute the plan.  We stayed here and refreshed ourselves

                 until dark, waiting the return of two spies, who had been sent to reconoitre

                 Brunswick and the British troops that were on their way to Amboy.  On their

                 return, they brought accounts that these troops had been alarmed and had gone

                 to reinforce Brunswick with 1500 men, which rendered our plan abortive…

 

                 We accordingly marched back to Allentown through a very dark night and roads

                 half leg deep which worried the troops exceedingly.

 

                 When we returned to Allentown  my quarters were full of militia and there was

                 no place to sit or lie down.  I went to the door of my room, which was now

                 occupied by three Pennsylvania field officers and politely requested them to

                 let us go in and sit by the fire, but they sternly refused.  I told them we had no

                 other place to go and if they would not admit us willingly they must defend them-

                 selves, and thereupon drew my sword and opened the door.  They then begged me

                 to wait until they could light a candle, and upon seeing our dress very politely

                 invited us in and then spread the table… with good wine and ready dressed

                 provisions of which they had in great variety, and we spent the rest of the night in

                 great festivity.”  [67]

 

Plan to Protect Gen. Washington’s Flank on The Way to The Battle of Princeton:

January 1777

 

1/2/77      Samuel Stelle Smith---The Battle of Princeton

 

               “There seems to be no list of those attending the council of war [Trenton] but it was

                 Washington’s custom to invite all of his general officers, his staff, and others

                 who might contribute.  Surely Generals Greene, Sullivan, Stephen, St. Clair,

                 Cadawalader, Mifflin, Ewing and Knox were there…..The final plan decided

  upon at the council of war was ….. To give further protection to the approaches

                          of Philadelphia, which would otherwise lay exposed, Major General Israel

                 Putnam would be ordered to cross the Delaware into New Jersey from

                 Philadelphia with whatever troops he could muster.  Gen. Putnam was to

                 advance to Crosswicks where he would make his headquarters, and place

                 outposts at Allentown.”  [68]

 

The 2nd Battle of Trenton (The Battle of the Assunpink)

January 2, 1777

The Battle of Princeton

January 3, 1777

 

1/2/77        Captain Thomas Rodney’s Diary:

 

                  [Editor’s note: This entry seems to have been started and dated from Allentown

                  and finished later.]

 

 “(…In the possession of Mr. Caesar A. Rodney, of Wilmington Delaware.)

 

                                                                                                Allentown   January 2d 1777.

This morning we were called up at 2 o’clock under a pretended alarm that we

were to be attacked by the enemy but at daylight we were ordered to march

for Trenton, and when we reached Crosswicks found that the brigade had gone.

We reached Trenton about 11 o’clock, and found all the troops from our different

posts in Jersey, collected and collecting there under General Washington himself;

and the regular troops were already properly disposed to receive the enemy,

whose main body was then within a few miles and determined to dispossess us.

Trenton stands upon the River Delaware, with a creek called Assunpink passing

through the town across which there is a bridge.  The enemy came down on the

upper side of this creek, through the town, and a number of our troops were

posted with Rifleman and artillery to oppose their approach.  The main body of

our army was drawn up on a plain below or on the lower side of the Assunpink,

near the bridge, and the main force of our Artillery was posted on the banks and

high grounds along the creek in front of them.  Gen. Mercer’s brigade was

posted about 2 miles up the creek, and the troops under Gen. Cadwalader were

stationed in a field on the right about a mile from the town, on the main road, to

prevent the enemy from flanking.  We had five pieces of Artillery with our

Division and about 20 more in the field, near and at the town.  Our numbers were

about five thousand, and the enemy’s about seven thousand.  The attack began

about 2 o’clock and a heavy fire upon both sides, chiefly from the artillery,

continued until dark.  At this time, the enemy were left in possession of the upper

part of the town, but we kept possession of the bridge, altho’ the enemy attempted

several times to carry it but were repulsed each time with great slaughter.  After

sunset this afternoon the enemy came down in a very heavy column to force the

bridge.  The fire was very heavy and the Light troops were ordered to fly to the

support of that important post, and as we drew near, I stepped out of the front to

order my men to close up; at this time Martinas Simple was about 10 steps behind

the man next in front of him.  I at once drew my sword and threatened to cut his

head off if he did not keep close he then sprang forward and I returned to the

front.  The enemy were soon defeated and retired and the American army also

retired to the woods, where they encamped and built up fires.  I then had the roll

called to see if any of our men were missing and Martinas was not to be found,

but Lieut. Mark McCall informed me that immediately upon my returning to the

head of the column after making him close up, he fled out of the field.  We lost

but few; the enemy considerably more.  It is thought that Gen. Washington

                  did not intend to hold the upper part of the town.”  [69]

 

 

                  Caesar Rodney was President of the Delaware State, Major General of the

                  Delaware Militia and a signer of the Declaration of Independence.  [70]                                                                                                                      

                 Captain Thomas Rodney, Caesar’s younger brother, of the Kent County,

                             Delaware Militia was attached to Colonel Cadwalader’s Division (Light                                        

                 Infantry) before the Second Battle of Trenton.  [71]   In 1775, he was a member 

                 of the State Assembly of Delaware, the Delaware Council of Safety and the 

                       committee of observations.     [72]  

 

 

 1/2/77      Colonel Reed’s Letter to Major-General Putnam at Mount Holly

 

                                                             “East Side of Trenton Creek January 2nd 1777,

                                                                                                         12 o’clock at night

 

                 Dear General Putnam :

 

                  The enemy advanced upon us today.  We came to the east side of the river

                  or creek, which runs through Trenton, when it was resolved to make a

                  forced march and attack the enemy in Princeton.  In order to do this with

                  the greatest security, the baggage is sent off to Burlington.  His Excellency

                  begs you will march immediately forward with all the force you can collect at

                  Crosswicks where you will find a very advantageous post; your advanced

                  party at Allentown.  You will also send a good guard for our baggage

                  wherever it may be. Let us hear from you as often as possible.  We shall do

                  the same by you.

                                                                                                             Yours,

                                                                                                                   J. Reed “  [73]

 

                 [Editor’s note:  Colonel Joseph Reed was Military Secretary to General     

                  Washington.]

 

1/5/77     George Washington to Israel Putnam:

 

               “Pluckemin, January 5, 1977.

 

                Dear General:  Fortune has favoured us in an Attack on Princeton. General Howe

                advanced upon Trenton which we Evacuated on the Evening of this instant… The

                number of the Killed Wounded and taken prisoners amounts to about 5 or

                600.  We lost Several Officers and about thirty privates.  Genl. Mercer is badly

                Wounded,  if not Mortally.  After the Action, we immediately marched for this

                place.  I shall remove from hence to Morristown, there shall wait a few days and

                refresh the Troops, during which time, I shall keep a strict Watch upon the

                Enemy’s motions; They appear to be panic struck, and I am in hopes of driving

                them out of  the Jerseys.  It is thought advisable for you to march the Troops

                under your Command to Crosswix, and keep a Strict watch upon the Enemy upon

                that Quarter.  If the Enemy continue at Brunswick, you must act with great

                Cicumspection, lest you meet with a Surprize.  As we have made two successful

                attacks upon the Enemy by way of Surprize, they will be pointed with resentment,

                and if there is any possibility of retaliating, will attempt it.  You will give out your

                Strength to be twice as great as it is.  Forward on all Baggage and Scattered Troops

                belonging to this division of the Army as soon as may be.

 

                You will keep as many Spies out as you will see proper, a Number of Horsemen,

                in the dress of the Country, must be constantly kept going backwards and forwards

                for this purpose, and if you discover any Motion of the Enemy, which you can

                depend upon, and which you of Consequence, Let me be informed thereof as soon

                as possible by Express.  I am & c….” [74]

 

 

    Americans Attack Tories at Monmouth Courthouse

    January 1777

 

             In the first week of January, after the success of American forces at the Second

             Battle of Trenton and the Battle of Princeton, 120 rebels attacked over 200

             recruits at Monmouth Court House.  In consequence, the Tories retreated fast.

             One week later though, the Monmouth County Tories were causing trouble

             again and Francis Gurney was sent in.  [75]

                                                                          

  

                                      

 Washington Orders Army Provisions Collected- Captain Francis Wade Posted at      

 Allentown

 January, 1777

 

 

                  Francis Wade made Allentown his post of operations from January through

                  the end of April.  Until the end of January, he was assisted by eight members

                  of the Philadelphia Associators (Militia).  When the Philadelphia Militia

                  returned home at the end of January, he wrote several letters to General

                  Putnam requesting replacements.  Francis Wade reported on forage collected

                  from the Freehold/UpperFreehold areas by Francis Gurney’s party.  They

                  collected flour, rice, wine, pipe run, sugar, hatchets, pots and kettles, temporarily

                  storing them at Crosswicks.  Most of the stores were sent to New Town,

                  Pennslyvania.  Some pipe run was sent to Morristown and several wagons of

                  sundry goods were sent to Philadelphia. . [76]

               

               

 1/10/77  George Washington Corresponds With Pennsylvania Safety Council

 

               “Morris Town, January 10, 1777.

 

                Gentn:  I have appointed Capt. Francis Wade to collect a quantity of Provisions

                (particularly Pork) in and about the Towns of Allentown, Crosswix &c. &c.

                 and store the same at Newtown, Bucks County in Pennsylvania.  A quantity of

                 Salt will be necessary to cure the Pork, which I must desire you to furnish…

                 Your Compliance will greatly benefit the Service, as it will enable us to remove

                 the Provisions out of the Enemy’s way and form a necessary Magazine for 

                 ourselves.  I am etc.    [77]

 

                [Editor’s note: Francis Wade was appointed Deputy Quartermaster General,

                United States Army but was still referred to as ‘Captain’ until his appointment

                was formally approved. Thomas Rodney was already referring to him as

                Quarter Master General on December 30, 1776. ]

                

               

                      

 1/11/77   George Washington Corresponds With Captain Francis Wade

                                  

              “Morris Town, January 11, 1777

 

                You are hereby Authorized and empowered to collect all the Beef, Pork, Flour,

                Spiritous Liquors &c. &c. not necessary for the Subsistance of the Inhabitants, in

                all the parts of East Jersey, lying below the road leading from Brunswick to

                Trenton, and as fast as the Stores are collected, to be removed to New town  in 

                Bucks  County…,and, there be stored, and formed into proper Magazines…You

                are further Authorized and empowered, to press such Wagons, Carriages, &c as  

                may  be necessary to transport the Provisions and Stores…You are first to notify

                the  Inhabitants and request them, to bring in all the enumerated articles,…for 

                which they shall be paid a generous price;  But if any refuse to comply with the 

                request, you are directed to take such Articles as they withhold, by force…The

                Commanding Officers at the different Posts in East Jersey, are hereby directed to

                furnish you with such Assistance…”  [78]

 

1/29/77   Captain Francis Wade Corresponds With George Washington

           

              “Allen Town, New Jersey                                                    29th Jan. 1777

 

                Sir:

                Enclosed you have a report of  the provisions and stores by me from Lieut.

                Colo. Gurney’s party…I endeavoured by sending out a person for putting

                up advertisements, at Prince Town to collect some store of Cattle to be taken

                from that place by some of the Amwell Militia and others, whose names I

                not, but as yet have not been very successful as they had some returned.  I

                am sorry to be obliged to inform you that great attention has been paid to

                matters of this kind, by persons that goes into places after our army, who

                have no manner of right, and converts the stores to their own private use.  …A

                considerable saving might be made to the States, by having forager persons

                appointed for that purpose and prevent the great mischief attending the

                plundering of the Inhabitants and the destruction of stores, etc….I am

                determined to persevere and do the best I can until I am favoured with your

                further orders, being satisfied that business I am upon  will….be a great saving 

                to the state as well as dissuading the Enemy from any future advantage…I

                have sent a party yesterday down to the salt works where I had information 

                that there is a quantity ready, with orders to secure it…

        

                                                                                       I am with truth,

                                                                                       Sir,

                                                                                       Your most Obedient and most

                                                                                       Humble Servant

                                                                                       Fran, e Wade

 

                --now received a line from General Putnam - request in to General Rodney at

                at Trenton for men.”  [79]

 

                 [Editor’s note:  ‘General Rodney’ refers to Ceasar Rodney, President of

                 the State of Delaware who was at Trenton in January, 1777 for several weeks.]

 

                 Captain Francis Wade and many of the farmers of Upper Freehold Township

                 did not see eye to eye on the prices he paid for considerable quantities of

                  forage and articles he collected during a truly desperate time. John Lawrie,

                  Michael Mount, and Jacob Hendrickson petitioned the Continental Congress for

                  appropriate renumeration.  The petition was referred to a committee appointed

                  to enquire into the conduct of the commissaries.  Francis Wade also petitioned

                  this commission to clear his name.  As a result of the inquiry, Wade was

             instructed to pay the owners amounts determined by the committee.

                   

             The committee though, also acknowledged the pure necessity of the situation,

             and although disagreeable and unpleasant for inhabitants involved, they found

             that the Quarter Master had not acted with undue severity.  [80]

 

 

The Death of Isaac Rogers --- Colonel Joseph Height Marries Hannah Talman Rogers

March 1777

 

3/14/77      Isaac Rogers Died on March 14, 1777.

      

 

 The Pennsylvania Evening Post                                    March 29, 1777

 

 “On the fourteenth ult. Isaac Rogers, Esq; of Allentown, in the Jersies,

  departed this life; a gentleman endowed with many excellent qualities,

  and of a sound and clear judgement, which enabled him to execute the

  important trust of a magistrate with a becoming dignity, and a steady and

  impartial administration of justice.---Vile Tories!  It cannot go unnoticed,

  that through your gross abuse and continual harassing, you brought on

  him a dejection of spirits and a broken heart, by which he fell a sacrifice

  to your villainous conduct.  But you worst of men, remember that the day

  will come, when the Almighty, in the course of his wisdom and providence,

  will punish you for your wickedness…” [81]

 

              Isaac Rogers, was a member of the Committee of Allentown and may have

              been Justice of the Peace.  On the same day of his death, March 14, 1777,

              Monmouth County Officers petitioned the New Jersey Assembly requesting

              that harsh measures be taken against Loyalists and others within Monmouth

              County working for or with the British.

 

             Colonel Joseph Height’s wife, Rebecca appears to have died soon after  they

             moved to Allentown.  In 1778, he married Hannah Talman Rogers, the

             widow of Isaac Rogers, who was the mother of eight children. [82]  “William

    Height, son of Joseph and Rebecca, married February 4, 1790 Sarah Rogers,        

             daughter of Isaac and Hannah Rogers.,” [83]  his step-sister. After his marriage

             to Hannah Rogers, Colonel Height began adding ‘Esquire’ to his name on

             documents, as befits a gentleman.     

                    

Monmouth County Officers Petition the New Jersey State Governor’s Council & General Assembly Asking that Harsh Measures Be Taken to Counteract the Impact

of British Expanded Offers of Protection to Those Who Take the Oath of Allegiance to King George III  which is Effecting Morale and Efficacy Among the Troops

March 1777

 

                  On the same day as Isaac Rogers Death, a petition is signed:

 

                “To the Honorable the Govr Council & Gen’l Assembly of the State of New

                  Jersey in Legis’re convened.

                 

                  The remonstrance and Petition of the field and other officers of the county

                  of  Monmouth, now assembled, humbly sheweth, that we are fully of the opinion,

                  that the enlargement of the Commiss’rs appointed under Lord & Gen’l Howe to

                  give protection and take the oath of allegiance to George the third, King of

                  Great Britian, & a nu--- of other persons of considerable property within the

                  county will prove the destruction of this place; we humbly conceive that unless

                  those persons are apprehended & confined agreeable to the laws of the state, our

                  strength will only tend to involve those who always have & still are heartily

                  disposed to espouse their country’s cause in the most disagreeable seituation;

                  those lenient measures exercised to the most notorious offenders only harden

                  them and their adherents  in their crimes,- they have it plainly proven to them

                  that they have nothing to fear from the violation of the laws of this state, while

                  they are eternely running the most horrid consequences of violationg the Lordly

                  mandates of the Howes; we do therefore humbly pray that the Commiss’re &

                  other men of property as well as poor men, may be called upon to answer the

                  broken laws of the State of New Jersey & that your Honours will authorise some

                  persons within this county to take the oaths to the states, from every person; as

                  our affairs now stand the disaffection is so general and great, that even among

                  the guards assembled, there are some that have declared, that they would not

                  fire an alarm gun, should they be on duty & see an enemy approach, in short, we

                  are fully convinced, that unless some very spirited and speedy measures are

                     taken we will fall prey to the enemy within our own bounds.

 

                                   Monmouth County March 14th 1777-

                                                                        

                  Samuel Forman  Col.                   Thomas Edwards Let

                  Asher Holmes Major                    Isaac Imlay 1st Lieut

                  Ken Anderson Adjt:                     David Gordon  Ensign

                  Daniel Hendrickson                     John Schanck Lieut.

                  Auke Wikoff  Liet Coll                James Bruer  Lieut

                  Hendrick Van Brunt  Major         William Imlay  Lieut.

                  Elisher Lawrence Lt. Col             John Walton  Ensign

                  Hendrick Smock  Capt.                Benjmain Covenhoven  Lieut

                  Elisha Walton Capt.                     David Loyd  Lieut

                  Nathaniel Polhemus Capt.            James Green  Lieut

                  Joseph Cowperwaite  Capt.          Samuel Dennis  Lieut

                  Michael Sweetman  Capt             Theo’s Little  Lieut

                  Nicholas van Brunt Capt              Garrit Hendrickson  Lieut

                  John Dennis  Capt.                       Thomas Chardwick  Ensign.

                  Jonathan Peairs  Capt                   Thomas Wainright

                  John Smock  Capt.                        William Schank Lieut.

                  Joseph Stillwell  Capt.                  James Wall  Ensign

                  Benj’n Dennis  Capt.                     David Forman  Leut.

                  William Montgomery  Capt.         Moses Davis  Lieut.

       Peter Wikoff  Capt.                      Nathanial Davison  Ensign”  [84]

 

            [Editor’s note:  Tip for Readers; In the 18th century, many people spelled

             phonetically.  This accounts for the wide variation in the spelling of names that

             sometimes occurs.]

 

Elisha Lawrence Accepts Protection of the British

March 1777               

 

           Message from his excellency, William Livingston to the House of Assembly, stating

           that he is informed that 1st Major Elisha Lawrence, has accepted the enemy’s

           protection and refused to take the oaths to the Government; and this Battalion.  [85]

 

           [Editor’s note:  There were several Elisha Lawrences.  This Elisha Lawrence was

            the cousin of the Quarter Master Elisha Lawrence who was stationed at Allentown.]

 

 

 

Lewis Bestedo Kills Nicholas Williams and Captures Thomas Fowler and

Conveys Him to Allentown For Interrogation

April 1777

 

4/9/77    Extract – Correspondence of the Executive of New Jersey

              Governor Livingston Papers – Deposition of Lewis Bestedo

 

                                                                                             “ [Borden Town, April 15, 1777]

              New Jersey Burlington

 

              Lewis Bestedo of the Township of Upper Freehold in the County of Monmouth

              & State of New Jersey aforesaid being duly sworn on the Holy Evangelists of

              Almighty God, deposeth and saith, that on or about the ninth Day of this instant  

              April, as he this Deponent was riding on the public Road between the dwelling

              House of Alexander Howard and Crosswicks, Two Men namely Nicholas Williams

              and Thomas Fowler who were till then concealed among some Bushes, started up

              very near to this Deponent, when said Williams cried out him “God damn your

              Blood stop” and immediately said Williams & Fowler both presented their guns

              at this Deponent, who instantly alighted from his Horse.

 

              This Deponent further saith that one or both (which he cannot determine) of said

              Persons did fire directly at him the said Deponent, and that a Ball discharged from

              one of said Guns came so near his Head that he thinks he felt it brush his Hair.

              Upon which this Deponent, having also a loaded Gun in his Hand, did

              immediately take Aim, and shot the said Nicholas Williams through the Head,

              of which wound he instantly died.  And then rushing upon the said Thomas Fowler

              took him prisoner, and conveyed him to AllenTown, where he delivered him to

              Capt. Wade…

 

                                                                                                                    Lewis Bestedo

 

            Sworn in Council of Safety the fifteenth day of April 1777 Before me

 

                                                                                                  Will: Livingston President”  [86]

 

Lieutenant Barton Captures Giles Williams, a Tory

May 1777

 

 5/19/77    Colonel David Brearley to Governor Livingston:

 

                                                                                                  Allentown,  May 19, 1777

                 “SIR,- Your Excellency will have delivered herewith a certain Giles Williams,

                  who left this state last summer with Elisha Lawrence and others, and joined

                  the enemy on Staten Island; he has for some time past been lurking in the Pines

                  with a set of villains, but was very luckily taken last night in the edge of the

                  Pines, by Lieut. Barton, and sent up to this place.  I am your excellency’s most

                  obedient and humble servant,

                                                                        DAVD BREARLEY, Jun.

 

                  His Excellency, Governor Livingston.

 

 

                  Elisha Lawrence was the Sheriff of Monmouth County, Colonel of the 1st

                  Battalion,  N.J. Royal Volunteers.  He was taken prisoner at Staten Island in 1777

                  by Col. Ogden under General Sullivan.  His property was sold at Waln’s mill on

                  April 5th, 1779.  He emigrated to Great Britain.  He was the cousin of the ‘other’

                  Elisha Lawrence who served as Quartermaster at Allentown.

 

 

British Forces Leave New York for Philadelphia

July 1777

 

Death of Elizabeth Brearley- Wife of Col. David Brearley

August 1777

 

              Death Notice of Elizbeth Brearley--- Pennsylvania Gazette--- Aug. 13, 1777

 

             “On the third instant, died at Allentown, in New Jersey, Elizabeth Brearley,

              wife of Col. David Brearley, after a long and painful illness, which she bore

              with great fortitude.  It may be said of this lady that her external form (for

              she was eminently beautiful,) was but a fair copy of her mind; and it would

              injustice to her memory not to say that she possessed all the qualities that

              adorn human nature.”  [87]

                                                                                                              

British Forces Take Possession of Philadelphia

September 1777 

                                                   

                     

Washington Directs a Grain and Hay Magazine Be Established at Allentown

Spring 1778

 

3/31/78     George Washington to Nathanael Greene

 

                “Valley Forge, March 31, 1778.

 

                  200,000 Bushels of Grain and as much Hay as can be drawn in from both sides

                  of the Delaware, to be lodged on the banks of the Delaware from Trenton

                  upwards….

 

                  All the Hay to be screwed in Bundles, 40,000 Bushels of Grain and Hay in

                  proportion, at Trenton, Allentown, and other lower parts of Jersey.

 

                  Sir:   I approve of the above places for Magazines with this proviso, that the

                  one at Trenton shall not (in its full extent) be immediately formed, and that

                  the others upon that River shall be tolerably high up for security.  … I should

                  prefer a number of small Magazines to a few large ones, and think, if they

                  were laid in quarterly, or for a term not exceeding four or six Months, it

                  would be advisable and proper, as the theatre of war may change, and taxation

                  must reduce the price of every commodity.  I am &ca. [88]

 

[Editor’s note:  The quantities and locations had been proposed by Nathanael Greene as above.]

 

Gen. Clinton’s  1st Division’s Encampment  at Allentown---On the Way  To The     Battle of Monmouth

June 1778

 

 

                  Major Andre, Chief of British Intelligence, Spies on Allentown:

 

   Prior to Clinton’s arrival, Major Andre spent a night at the home of Dr. James          

Newell.  The Newell family version of exactly what happened is as follows:

                                                                                                                               

 “In the year 1778, Major Andre came to Allentown bringing with him letters of

introduction to Dr. James Newell from John Lawrence of Burlington, and asked

Dr. Newell to give medical service to Andre’s brother who was ill.  The brothers

were hospitably received and cared for at Dr. Newell’s house in Allentown where

they stayed for a day and a night; then getting word that the American troops

were rapidly advancing in that direction, they left very early in the morning in a

carriage belonging to an invalid lady, a Mrs. Wykoff of Philadelphia, which Major Andre borrowed on account of the extreme illness of his brother (whom Mrs. Newell thought too ill to be moved);  this carriage Major Andre caused to be  returned to its owner after he had reached South Amboy in safety.  In the hurried departure at an hour before daylight, one of the spoons from Major Andre’s camp-

kit, which had been used as a medicine spoon for the invalid, was left on the mantle-shelf of the room which they had occupied in my great-great-grandfather’s house;  this spoon, bearing the Crest of the Andre family is in my possession  [89]

 

                 Dr. James Newell was the grandson of an Irishman who immigrated to America. [90]  

                 Dr “James Newell, (who married Elizabeth, daughter of Elisha Lawrence who was

                 a member of the General Assembly of the Province of East Jersey), became one

                 of the Proprieters of the General Assembly of the Province of East Jersey),

                 became one of the Proprieters of West Jersey…He was commissioned surgeon

                 of the 2nd Regiment of Foot Militia of Monmouth County in 1776.”  [91]   Dr. James

                 Newell’s daughter Elizabeth, married Robert Montgomery, owner of the Eglinton

                 Estate, located two miles east of Allentown.  The James Newell House was on the

                 property where the Allentown Library now stands.  Major Andre was later

                 captured at Tarrytown, New York, hung as a spy, and was buried at Westminister

                 Abby.  For more on Major Andre—see POSTSCRIPT Section.

 

                 [Editor’s note: Dr. James Newell had no direct relation to Governor William

                 Newell  who was the father of the United States Coast Guard. Governor William

                 Newell lived a half a century later.]

 

 6/24/78    General Philemon Dickinson to General Washington:

 

                                                                            Trenton,  June 24, 1778, “ ½ past 6 oclock

                 “Colonel Morgan marches in the Afternoon, for Allentown…to fall in their rear

                  - I shall order about three hundred Militia who are collected there, to join him -

                   Colo. White with forty Lt. Horse, have marched for the same purpose -  The

                   remainder of the Militia, except those in front, & a few on the right flank, with

                   General Maxwell’s Brigade , will continue on the left flank,  it will be very late

                   in the day before they march - I forgot to inform your Excellency that Genl.

                   Maxwell has two company’s in the van.”  [92]

 

 6/24/78      Col. Samuel Forman Corresponds with Major General Dickinson:

 

                                                                                                  “Hoopers Tavern

                                                                                                    half past 11:00 o’clock

                   Dear General

 

                   The enemy entered Allentown 9 o’clock another Division crossed at Walls Mill.

                   Suspect their route will be thro’ Imlaystown & will find the  [corpsmen?] I have

                   on the road to Cranberry As to gain the earliest intelligence.  I am at present

                   dismounted, expect to be mounted in about 2 hours if the rear horse are not

                   intercepted – they will cross the Enemies road at Hidestown.

 

                                                                                                     I am your H. Serv.

                  To Major Dickinson            from                               Samuel Foreman Col.”  [93] 

 

                                            

                                                 

 6/24/78    George Washington to Major-General William Heath:

 

“…On the morning of the 18 Inst. the rear of the enemy’s army evacuated Philadelphia upon which I immediately moved towards the Delaware.  They have penetrated as far as Allen Town, but whether they mean for Amboy, or Sandy Hook is not evident.  Every obstruction is thrown in their way which our circumstances will admit.  I am, etc.” [94]

 

6/24/78      Thomas Sullivan’s Journal:

 

                “The right Division marched from Biccleston [sic], and the left from Crosswicks.

                  On the March, the 1st Battalion Light Infantry, at the head of the left column,

                  fell in with Colonel Morgan’s Riflemen and a body of Militia, under

                  General’s Dickinson and Heard near Allentown.  A smart firing ensued and                                    

                  the enemy at length retreated into the woods, without any material loss at

                  either side, and the Division remained encamped at Allentown that night.” [95]

 

                  [Editor’s note: Biccleston (or Recklesstown) is in Chesterfield Township,

                  Burlington, County. A cannon ball was found on the current site of the Catholic

                  Church near Allentown, in Upper Freehold Township.  Mr. Joseph H. Schooley

                  owned a Real Estate Brokerage, Title Insurance Company (formerly owned by

                  Charles Hutchinson) that handled the transaction of sale of the Sohn chicken

                  farm to the Catholic Church around the late 1930’s.  As a result of Mr. Schooley’s

                  work on the sale, he was given the cannon ball which is still in the possession

                  of his daughters, Mrs. Laura V. Steward of Allentown/Mrs. Roberta Holmes of

                  Upper Freehold Township.]

 

6/24/78     Captain John Peebles’ Journal (British):

 

                 “It was eight o’Clock this morng. Before we got off the ground, marched to

                  Allentown 4 miles and Encamped on a very fine extensive piece of clear ground

                  7 almost level to the N:Ed: of the Village, fronting the West in two lines—or NW-      

                  a pretty Country—

 

                  A remarkable Eclipse of the Sun today, but being cloudy could not see it till near

                  & at its height, near 10 A:M: when it was almost total, as it went off the day

                  clear’d up & grew hot…”  [96]

 

6/24/78     Quarter Master Hausser’s Journal (Van Lossberg Regiment):

 

                 “At 4 ‘oclock this morning we marched to Amby’s Town.  The Head Quarter

                  was at Allington, in two colons as before.  We had to pass a bridge (on

                  this march) which the enemy had destroyed the day before, thus rebuilding

                  of the bridge Kept us three hours here.” [97]

 

                  [Editor’s note: On the 25th, Head Quarters of General Clinton moved to the Rising

                  Sun Tavern.  ‘Amby’s Town’ refers to Imlaystown, Upper Freehold Township.

                 ‘Allington’ refers to Allentown. This document was translated in the 19th century.]

             

6/24/78     Major Andre’s Journal (Chief of British Intelligence)

 

                “General Leslie joined Lord Cornwallis at 6 in the morning, and the Division

                  marched immediately after and came to Allentown, four miles…” [98]

 

6/24/78     Pension Deposition of William Lloyd  (New Jersey Militia):

                

                William Lloyd of Upper Freehold writes;

 

               “General Maxwell gave me a letter to take to Colonel Nelson of the Middlesex

                 militia of Allentown, and after my departure the British drove him out [of] the

                 Village of Crosswicks over the bridge.  They then proceeded to Allentown, west

                 about two miles further and encamped.  I then met with Colonel Morgan and his

                 rifle company.  He drove a party of the enemy out of Allentown.  I pursued after 

                 [and] came near a light horseman.  He advanced towards me.  I fired at him.  He

                 ran and was too near their main body to pursue him…I rode in company with a

                 militia horseman…”  [99]

 

                [Editor’s note: ‘Colonel Nelson’ refers to Colonel John Neilson (Nelson).

                Colonel Neilson was a great hero of the war.  He was soon to be named Brigadier

                General of the Militia.  He was also Quarter Master of Middlesex County.

                Charles R. Hutchinson identifies the Quarter Master’s Depot for Middlesex

                County as located at ‘Allen…’.  Whether this refers to Allentown or Allen Rd.

                is unclear.]

 

6/24/78     Pension Deposition of  Major Thomas Massie (Morgan’s Riflemen):

 

                 Major Thomas Massie along with Major Gibbs were detailed to attend

                 General Morgan. At the time of this engagement, he was 30 years old.

 

               “ …Gen. Clinton evacuated Philadelphia.  He [Massie], marched under Gen.    

                 Morgan, who was appointed to command the light troops, etc., to interrupt

                 and endeavor to retard the march of the British army through Jersey to Sandy

                 Hook.  The first attempt to retard their march was at Allentown.  This stopped

                 them a day and some prisoners were taken.”  [100]

                

6/24/78     Sarah Smith Stafford’s Letter to George W. Patterson, member of the Legislature:

 

                Sarah Smith Stafford was born in 1802.  Her father was an officer of the revolution

                and afterwards taught at the Presbyterian Academy attached to the Presbyterian

                Church at Allentown.  An early American flag that was in her possession is now in

                the collection of the Smithsonian Institution.  She is presumed to be the first  

                 woman elected to the New Jersey State Historical Society.   [101]

 

                “I have been shown where the British entered Allentown, and heard the name of

                 the man that shot a British officer at the stone bridge, on the “Kings Highway”

                 in that village, and also been shown the spot where several British soldiers who

                 died from heat were buried in the graveyard attached to the Presbyterian Church

                 in that place.”  [102]

           

                

6/24/78     Dean Storms- History of Allentown New Jersey (1965):

 

               “Strolling through the old portion of the Presbyterian Cemetery, one comes to

                 a low place, behind the Chapel, in the northerly corner…Here lie the remains

                 of people whose graves have never been marked in any form…It is supposed

                 that some Revolutionary soldiers were also buried here, as in digging graves in

                 past years, metal buttons, buckles, etc. have frequently been dug up.” [103]

 

6/24/78     Extract from the Monmouth Democrat:

 

               “On the 24th, Knyphausen, with his advance, lay at Imlaystown, and Clinton

                 his rear guard at Allentown.  Here, Washington proposed to give battle, but

                 was overruled by a council of war.”  [104]

 

                 [Editor’s note: Also see Gen.Von Stuben’s Diary]

 

6/24/78     General Clinton’s Order from Lieutenant Colonel Clarke’s Order Book

                 William S Stryker --- The Battle Of Monmouth:

 

                                                                        “Head Quarters Allen’s Town June 24, 1778

 

                 The baggage to be loaded and the Army to be in readiness to move at 4 o’clock

                 to-morrow morning.  The 1st Division will march by half companies from the

                 left in the following order---Brigadier General Leslie’s Corps, consisting of the

                 5th Brigade and Hovendon’s dragoons, pontoons, and Baggage, Cattle, 4th

                 Brigade, 3rd Brigade, Guards, Artillery, Hessian Grenadiers, British Grenadiers,

                 Queens Dragoons, Light Infantry, Corps of Jagers, Allen’s Corps to flank the

                 Baggage of the left; the Army will receive one day’s fresh and one day’s

                 salt Provision as soon as they come to their ground.  The women to march with

                 the baggage according to this day’s order.”  [105]

 

6/24/78    Correspondence from Captain John Heard to Gen. Washington

 

                 “Sir   

                  The enemy is advanced five miles on the Monmouth Road towards

                  Shrewsbury, Gen. Nippauson lays at Embles Town and the Light infantry

                  lays on the [Height?] toward Monmouth Court House, the baggage

                  lays on the road between Allentown and Embles Town Gen. Clinton with

                  the left column lays about Allentown  they march in two columns.  I

                  have taken three prisoners and Killed one about two miles North East

                  of Emblestown this intelligence you may rely on it I was near their

                  Incampment the prisoners informed that they were to march at three

                  O’clock in the morning

 

                  Hightstown Wednesday Night                    I am [Your Honorable Servant]

                  Ten o’clock                                                 John Heard Cap”  [106]

 

6/24/78     Major Andre’s Journal:

 

                 Major Andre’s Journal map of the June 24th Encampment at Allentown

                 shows the encampment of Clinton’s Ist Division from the current

                 Ellisdale Road intersection with the Old York Road all the way past the

                 Old Shrewsbury Road (current Rt. 524) intersection with the Old York

                 Road along the Old York Road. [107]

 

                 [Editor’s note: Beginning at the current intersection of Church St. and

                 Main St., the Old Shrewsbury Road followed the path of Maiden Lane

                 to Route #524.  The path would currently cut across a farm field.]

 

6/24/78   ‘Eglinton’ - Records of the Allentown-Upper Freehold Historical Society

 

                 Lord Cornwallis occupied the home of Robert Montgomery at his estate

                 named ‘Eglinton’ at New Canton.

                            

                “Robert Montgomery suffered from the depredations of the troops; and

                  there is a memorandum of his losses caused by the Hessians on

                  their passage through this part of the country just before the Battle of

                  Monmouth.  It is endorsed by him,

 

                                       “Inventory of property destroyed June, 1778,

                                         belonging to Robert Montgomery, amounting

                                         to $249.10.”

                   

                  This amount only comprises the losses of his movable property...A portion of the

                  British army encamped on Montgomery Hill…and while there, three cannon balls

                  were fired at the dwelling, one of which struck near the front entrance and the

                  hole made in the bricks is still visible.  Another passed through the wainscoting

                  under one of the upper windows and found its way into a room.  A third

                  entered the parlor through one of the windows.  After being preserved for a

                  number of years, the balls were finally distributed to relatives of the family.” [108]

 

                  [Editor’s note:  Records of this property are in the possession of the

                  Allentown-Upper Freehold Historical Society.  Although the home was            

                  extensively damaged by a fire in July of 1974 and subsequently torn down,

                  photographic records, floor plans, site plans, and many of the Montgomery

                  records and ledger books are still extant (copies). There is photographic evidence

                 of cannon ball damage to the brick portion of the home supporting Major

                 Andre’s Journal account of this skirmish.] 

                .

6/24/78     ‘Eglinton’- Samuel N. Watson, D.D.- Those Paris Years

 

                  Samuel Newell Watson, D. D., a descendant of Robert Montgomery -

                  owner of the Eglinton Mansion, tells the family’s story of what happened;

                                  

                “…There was a pentroof running around the house just below the second story

                  windows; and it was by one of those windows that my great-grandmother

                  Montgomery was sitting when a cannon ball came through the window,

                  passed over her head, and lodged in the woodwork on the opposite side of

                  the room.  Another cannon ball struck the house just to the left of the front

                  door and knocked out the ends of four bricks; and is now at the Historical

                  Museum at Freehold used to hang by a chain just above the hole in the brick-

                  wall when I was a boy at Eglinton.  General Clinton’s forces must have been

                  marching in an easterly direction following the old Shrewsbury Rd.; and 

                  the guns must have been fired from the hillside above the meadow.

                  There are two traditions which give colour to the story;  one of them is that

                  a boy sitting at a gatepost at the end of the Lane jeered at the British Battery

                  which was in retreat, and that the officer in charge ordered a gun to be

                  wheeled about and fired at the mansion;  another is that one of the coloured

                  boys about the place refused to tell whereabouts in the orchard the family

                  silver was buried, and that the British put a rope around his neck and strung

                  him up to a limb of the big walnut tree in the front of the house to frighten him,

                  but finally let him down when they found that he would not tell.”  [109]

 

                  [Editor’s note;  Samuel N. Watson was also the great-great grandson of

                   Dr. James Newell.]

 

6/24/78     Traditions of the Allen-Imlay Plantation and the John Henry Estate

              

                  Two other Colonial homes that were nearby Eglinton also have traditions

                  associated with this encampment.  They were; the John Henry property

                  (also referred to as the Perrine-Dey House) and the Allen-Imlay Plantation

                  (also referred to as the Vahlsing property).  The Vahlsing home is still

                  standing. “ Mrs. Anna Hammell who owned this property before the Vahlsings

                  bought it and who operated the Brookside Tearoom there is the authority

                  for the following statement, based on information given to her by her grand-

                  mother Busby.  The Vahlsing House, the Perrine Dey House and Eglinton

                  were all under construction at the same time—these houses, all in a straight

                  line about a mile apart are all on the original Burnett tract.  The Perrine-

                  Dey House, which was the 1st place on the left going towards Hightstown

                  after leaving New Canton was built by John Henry.  Wilson Dey remembers

                  the date inscribed in the brick over the lintel as the early 1700s.”  [110]

 

                  Tradition is that some American soldiers encamped on the grounds of the

                  John Henry House. [111] There is also some tradition that the Vahlsing House

                  was occupied by British officers.  According to the Washington Township   

                  Historical Committee, Mercer County, bayonets and cannon ball were found on                  

                  this property.  Interestingly, “the old road from Allentown to Robbinsville… 

                  crossed  Indian Run Creek and thence ran on the easterly side of the house on the Buzby farm.” [112] 

                

                  [Editor’s note:  The Old Shrewsbury Road at one time branched off to

                     Trenton at this juncture following an old Indian path route and was later      abandoned in favor of the Trenton Road connection.   [113]]

 

                               

6/25/78     Major Andre’s Journal:

 

                “The Troops received Orders to be under arms at 4 o’clock, and marched by

                  the left as soon as the baggage had got into the front.  This reversion of the

                  order of march took up some time, and it was late before the rear was in

                  motion.  The Queen’s Rangers during this time masked the Provincetown

                  Road, and the Chasseurs, who had been posted on the West side of Doctor’s

                  Creek, were withdrawn to the same side with the Army.  A Body of the

                  enemy soon showed themselves, and passing thro’ the village advanced

                  a little towards the Jagers, but were dispersed again by a shot or two from

                  their 3-pounders.  It was said Morgan’s Corps of Rifle men were close

                  at hand.  The ground of the Encampment on which the Rear was detained

                  was very open, and some Cavalry was kept ambuscaded a little time, in

                  hopes of cutting off some of the  most adventurous in pressing on the

                  column.  They were withdrawn again without having had an opportunity

                  of trying their success.  As the Rear quitted the ground a few of the Rebels

                  possessed themselves of the house which had been Lord Cornwallis’ Quarters

                  but were very speedily dislodged by a gun of  the Light Infantry[114]

 

                   [Editor’s note: The reference above to the ‘Provincetown Road’ refers to

                   the current juncture of the York Road in Allentown with the Ellisdale Road/New

                   Road.  The Andre reference to the ‘West side of Doctor’s Creek’ refers

                   to the fact that the millpond in 1778 was not as wide as it is now. At that

                   time, there was an open area along the western banks of Doctor’s Creek

                   that was referred to in Allentown as ‘the meadow’.  Similarly, current Route

                   #539 which branches off from the York Road, was in a different location in

                   1778.  Instead of running in front of the Allentown Presbyterian Church,

                   it ran behind the Presbyterian Church.  Traveling along this road from

                   the York Road, ‘the meadow’ would have been on your left and the church on

                   your right.]

 

                  [Editor’s note: The term ‘jager’ translates into ‘hunter’ in English. “Dressed

                   in their hunter-green uniforms, the men, who were trained in forestry crafts and

                   were excellent marksmen, proved themselves to  be very proficient in com-

                   batting the ‘American Indian’ style of fighting employed by the colonists.

                   Often employed as escorts for senior British and Hessian officers, the jaegers

                   were generally found in the advance or rear guard forces and on special

                   assignments, and were a vital element in most engagements, in effect, they

                   the green-berets of their day.”  [115]  Particular elite light infantry units were                  

                   known jagers in the Hessian forces.  In the British forces, these troops were 

                   referred to as chausseurs.]

          

6/25/78      Encampment of 1778 - Allentown Traditions:

 

According to traditions dating back to Reverend Swain’s Centennial Address given at the Allentown Presbyterian Church, both the Presbyterian Church and the Old Presbyterian Meeting House (used by the Methodists and the Episcopalians prior to the war) were occupied during the war.  The Old Presbyterian Meeting House was located near the current corner of Main Street and Lakeview Drive along Lakeview Drive behind the homes on Main Street.  An old Allentown letter (now lost) stated that horses were inside the Old Presbyterian Meeting House.  The Old Presbyterian Meeting House was left in ruins, and injured by shot.  This church was not used for services after the war and was  “taken down previous to 1810, the Presbyterian Journal of Convention reporting it to be in a ‘ruinous state’”.  [116]                    [See Gris account below.]

                  

      Widespread traditions recall that other buildings between the Old Presbyterian Meeting House and Doctor’s Creek were also damaged.  Near the meeting house were the fulling mill, blacksmith’s shop, and the gristmill.  A cannon ball was found much later along the gristmill property.  The fulling mill, the blacksmith’s shop and the Old Presbyterian Meeting House, lay along the Old Shrewsbury Path Road - close to and almost parallel with the Old York Road.  Looking closely at an early map by John Hills, Engineer, produced for Sir Henry Clinton [117] shows the Allentown Presbyterian Church and the fulling mill area marked with prominent dots.

 

      [Editor’s note: David Taylor in the ‘fictional’ account Farewell to Valley Forge

      states that the fulling mill and ironworks at Allentown were also wrecked.  The

      plausibility of this  will be discussed in the next draft of this abstract.]

 

                  By tradition, several Hessian soldiers hid in the basement of the Cunningham

                  Hotel and defected.  The Cunningham Hotel was the tavern at the center of

                  Allentown.

 

By tradition, another cannon ball was found much later in Allentown.  This one    was found along the west side of Indian Run Creek about a hundred yards from Church Street heading north.

 

6/25/78       G.J. Gris—Allentown Messenger (1963):

 

                 “There was once a market house in Allentown, standing in the center of

                   Main Street, and situated so that carriages and pedestrians had to circle it on

                   either side on their journey through town…the structure was torn down about

1810.    Yet, before it was hauled down and carried away, it had stood on that

site for almost 50 years, and was the place citizens patronized to buy their

clothing, food and wares.  When the market house was destroyed, a cannon

ball was found there  which came into the possession of William Imlay of

Allentown, and was kept by him and his descendants as a valuable relic in

the old Imlay mansion.” [118]

 

[Editor’s note:  The last descendant of the John Imlay family to occupy the

Imlay mansion in Allentown was Miss Emma Gordon, who sold it in 1936. [119] The cannon ball has not been seen since she sold the house.  According to

Alice Wikoff of Allentown, who is related to the Imlay family, the cannon

ball was small, approximately 2 or 3 inches in diameter. The market house  

was located near the current intersection of Church Street and Main Street

                   in Allentown.]

 

6/--/78     William H. Ford---The Charles R. Hutchinson Collection:

 

                “The old house near Pigeon Run on the farm now of John D. Ford,… was the

                  original homestead house on the Ford tract.  When the British passed

                  through on the way to Monmouth, his great grandfather, John Ford and his

                  brother (who he thinks was James), took three horses and hid themselves in a

                  thick swamp, but were found by the British, who whipped them, carried off

                  their horses, and shot a fat heifer from which they cut a quarter, leaving the rest.

                  One of the horses was recovered after the Battle of Monmouth.” [120]

 

                  [Editor’s note: The Ford tract was located in what is now Washington Township,

                   Mercer County.]

 

6/--/78        Abel Cafferty (1881)--- The Charles R Hutchinson Collection:

 

                 “All the cattle & c in the village had been driven for safety to an isolated place

                   in a swamp, somewhere near where the old Debby Emlin now lives.  The

                   cellar of this house was of course well stocked with milk but a British scouting

                   party found the spot, and made short work of it.”  [121]

 

6/--/78       Adj. General Major Baurmeister’s (Hessian) Letters and Journals:

 

                 “Between Allentown and Cranbury and as far as Brunswick, Governor

                  Livingston had a thousand-yard-wide strip of the finest woods cut down in

                  order to barricade all the roads passing through.” [122]

 

6/25/78     Captain Johann Ewald’s Journal, Field Jager Corps (Hessian):

 

               “At daybreak the army set out toward Cranbury, to make the enemy believe

                 we meant to aim at his march to Princeton and attack him.  A corps

                 under General Lee had  moved into this area on the left of General Clinton.

                 The Jager Corps had to skirmish all day long with the enemy during which

                 Captain Cramon of the Anspach jagers had the rear guard[123]

 

6/25/78     Major Andre’s Journal:

 

                 The Division halted at Upper Freehold (the Rising Sun). [124]

 

                 [Editor’s note: The Rising Sun Tavern was located near the intersection of the Old

                  Shrewsbury Road (current Route #524) and Agress Road.]

 

6/25/78      Philemon Dickinson Writes to General Washington

 

                                                                      “ Allentown  June 25 1778   8 O’clock p.m.

                  Dear Sir

            

                  I wrote your Excellency today at one O’clock since which, I came to this

                  place, with the advanced party—The rear of the enemy, lays six miles distant

                  from this – their baggage is on the right, with three brigades of British, & the

                  number of Hessians—several deserters came in I imagine, deserters will be

                  great, as we are now so near them---

 

                  Their route is certainly thro’ Monmouth, tis generally thought, they will

                  [ambush?] at the Watering place---Col. Morgan left this place an hour ago,

                  for the right flank---I am told, Gen’l Scott is just marching in--- The Enemy

                  has marched sixteen miles this day, which is double their usual pace--

                  They have collected a great number of cattle.

 

                                                                          Your Excellancy’s Most Ob. Etc.

                                                                           Philemon Dickinson”  [125]

               

 

Major-General Von Steuben Leads Reconnaissance Mission to Allentown

June 1778

 

6/24/78      John Palmer – General Von Stuben

 

                 “Clinton’s objective was still uncertain.  The head of his column was now near

                   Allentown.  There, the road forked, one branch leading to South Amboy and

                   the other through Freehold (Monmouth Court House) to Sandy Hook.  Which

                   road would he take?  …  The Baron took it on as a volunteer …  He mounted

                   at once, with Walter, Duponceau and a few orderlies and rode toward

                   Allentown  [126]

 

6/25/78     John Palmer – General Von Stuben

 

                “Early the next morning he sent a courier with the news that the enemy’s

                  objective was Monmouth Court House.  Washington therefore moved

                  his main body from Hopewell to Kingston, seven miles nearer Monmouth

                  Court House… At sunset Washington’s main body moved forward to

                  Cranbury…

                           

                  Stuben had had a busy day.  He was near Allentown at dawn.  At three

                  o’clock he had written to General Scott from Hightstown….he continued his

                  reconnaissance far into the night.  He too had suffered from the Jersey heat

                  and Jersey mosquitoes.”  [127]

 

 

Brigadier-General Scott’s Encampment At Allentown—To The Battle of Monmouth

June, 1778

 

6/24/78      Henry Dearborn’s Journal:

 

                 “a Detatchment of 1500 Pick’d men was taken to Day from the army

                   to be Commanded by Brigadier Genr. Scot who are to act as Light In-

                   fantry Dureing the stay of the Enemy In Jersey.  Col. Cilley & I am

                   in one Reg. Of the Light Infantry ----Genr. Scot march’d to Day

                   towards the Enimy who are at Allin Town 14 miles from Prince Town,

                   we march’d thro Prince Town & Proceeded 3 miles towards allin

                   Town  & Incamp’d we have no Tents or baggage—“ [sic] [128]

 

6/25/78     Henry Dearborn’s Journal:

 

                 “this morning we march’d within 5 miles of the Enimy---& Halted &

                  Drew Provisions.  Sent a small Party of Horse to Reconoightir the Enimy. 

                  At 12 O Clock we ware Inform.d that the Enimy ware on their way to

                  Monmouth Court House.  Which is Towards Sandy Hook.  Our main

                  Army is Near Prince Town, we are nor Prepared to Harress the Enimy.

                  Genr. Scott 1500 men Genr. Maxwell 1000 Col. Morgan 500—Genr.

                  Dickerson 1000—Millitia: & 200 Horse.  The above Detachmt are on the

                  Flanks & Rear of the Enimy.  Genr. Washington is in our Rear with 12000

                  Men to support us—at 4 Oclock P: M we March to Allin Town & 

                  Incamp.d.  The Enemys Rear is 5 miles from us—“ [sic] [129]

 

Colonel Morgan’s Riflemen along Crosswicks Creek At Allentown

June 1778

 

               “Forty-two year old Daniel Morgan was an “ex-wagonmaster with a grudge against  

                 the British. During the French and Indian War, Morgan had gotten into a fight

                 with a British officer and was sentenced to 500 lashes.  Morgan and his fellow

                 sharpshooters …with their long barreled, rifled guns…could hit a target the size

                 of a man’s head at 250 yds.”  [130]      These troops though, were sometimes a pain

                 the neck for Washington.  “They were totally immune to discipline.”  [131] For

                 instance, a few years earlier, in 1775, “when one of the men was put in the

                 guardhouse, his friends rescued him and, for good measure, burned down the

                 guardhouse.”  [132]

               

                                 

6/25/78     Daniel Morgan to Gen. Washington from Crosswicks Bridge (5:00 o’clock A.M.):

 

  “Sir, I received your orders last evening by the Dragoon to gain the enemies right flank and annoy them as much as possible.  I am trying to put your order in execution but as the Crosswicks Creek runs parallel with road as far as Allentown and at times runs very near it, can’t gain their right till we pass that; …we cross the creek and that would be a barrier between us.  The enemy encamped some part of them at Allen Town last night.  I have no intelligence from them this morning.  You may depend that I will do every thing in my power to ___ them as much as possible…” [133]

                       

6/25/78     Daniel Morgan to Gen. Washington from Allentown  (11:00 oclock A.M.):

 

  “Sir, I proceed from Crosswicks to this place, where I fell in with the enemies rear.  We’ve exchanged a few shot, no harm come.  They drew up on one side of the creek and we down on the other.  I sent some parties to skirmish with them when they immediately made off.  Took the right hand road toward Shrewsbury --- I moved my whole party after them about a mile, and then filed off to their right,  and intend to gain their right this evening if possible.  I am afraid that I shant be able to do them much damage.  They encamp in a body so compact that it is impossible to get any advantage of them.  …we were able to beat their rear guard which is pretty strong.” [134]

 

  6/25/78      Washington to the President of the Continental Congress:

 

                  “The Enemy, in Marching from Allen Town had changed their disposition and

                    their best troops in the Rear, consisting of all the Grenadiers, Light Infantry, and

                    Chasseurs of the line.  This alteration made it necessary to increase the number

                    of our advanced Corps;…”  [135]

 

                   [Grenadiers were an elite flanking unit.  They, “and light infantry companies

                   were usually detached from their regiments for special, particularly important

                   or hazardous, combat missions”.  [136] ]

 

Thomas Sullivan Defects From the British and Joins the Continentals

June – July 1778

 

6/24/78     Thomas Sullivan’s Journal:

               

                “A Breath of freedom still glowed in my breast,…being partly roused to it by the ill usage (undeservedly,) when I was in the 4th Battalion; and partly on account of

                  my being married to a young woman that was born in America,…In Order to put my design in execution, I learnt the hour our Battalion (which was on the left flank of the Column,) were to march off their ground; being a Quarter before four in the morning.”  [137]

 

                  [Editor’s note:  Thomas Sullivan was camped near Imlaystown.]

 

6/25/78     Thomas Sullivan’s Journal:

 

 “I put on my Necessities in my Knapsack, and having a Corporal and twelve with     me on picket, who acquainted me of their being inclined to quit the service which I encouraged,…As the out Sentries were called in, the picquets followed the Battalion, this party excepted, and I sat off to my hut and from hence Slipt into a Wood, where I remained until the Column got upon their march. The troops being gone, I left the wood and saw my wife standing at the Door of a waste house…At some distance from the Encampment I met an old man, who cautioned against a set of people called Tories,… and  also informed me which route to take…and after a tedious and troublesome march, through the woods and marshes, arrived

   at 4 o’clock in the afternoon within two miles of Allentown, where I met Colonel Morgans’ Rifleman and two troops of the American Light Dragoons….  Then I

   returned Thanks to the Almighty for my safe and happy deliverance.  We marched     into Allentown, where I met Major Dickinson, of whom I got a pass to go to

   Philadelphia.  I sold my arms and Accoutrements with my Tommy-Hawk in the Town, for twenty four Dollars Papermoney; and being joined by a Chasseur

                  (who also made his escape) we proceeded to Crosswick….”  [138]

 

6/28/78     Thomas Sullivan’s Journal:

 

               “ We arrived in Philadelphia, where upwards of eight hundred deserters arrived before us…”  [139]

 

7/5/78       Thomas Sullivan’s Journal:

 

                “I left Philadelphia, having agreed with Col. Cox to come as Steward to Major

                    General Green’s Family, who was Quarter-Master General to the American   

                    Army.”  [140]

 

6/--/78     Jabesh Ashmore’s Pension Deposition:

              

                   Jabesh Ashmore served in Captain Joseph Clunns’s Artillery Co., Hunterdon

                   County Militia.Captain Clunn’s company had two cannons with them. Captain     

                Gibb Jones’ Company, which was with them, also had two cannons. At the

                Battle of Monmouth, Ashmore served under Colonel William Shreve.  [141]

               

               “next morning marched to Allentown—from thence we marched to the sign of the

                Rising Sun Tavern Freehold in Monmouth county, there we met General

                Washington [Lafayette] and were ordered to halt until all the Jersey troops came

                up.  We were then ordered to send our cannon which were heavy, back to

                Allentown, as it was difficult to take them through the heavy sand.  We were

                marched on after the British to Englishtown.  We were scouting until the

                twenty- eighth.”  [142]

           

 

The Battle of Monmouth

June 28, 1778

 

6/28/78     Colonel David Rhea to George Washington

 

                         “Dear General,

 

                          There is a strong party by your order posted at the pass

                          I mentioned and will in a few moments open four pieces

                          of artillery upon their left flank hoping to silence them

                          near your [ unreadable] are posted all the way to Shrewsbury

                          Road where their rear lay this morning - they must go near

                          five miles round before they can flank us.

                                     

                                                                   Your Very Humble Servant

                                                                    David Rhea

To: His Excellency Gen.

Washington”  [143]

 

                 

Loyalists Tried, Stripped of their Property and Exiled

1778-1784

 

6/11/79      John Longstreet Jr., a Tory, is stripped of his property.- (Hutchinson)

 

                “On the 11th of June 1779, the land now embraced in the Union Hotel property,

                  sold under the confiscation laws by Samuel Forman, Joseph Lawrence and

                  Kenneth Hankinson, commissioners. The property was then described as

                  adjoining David Rhea’s lot, and consisted of  “a house, outhouses and a lot of

                  ground,” previously owned by John Longstreet Jr. who was a refugee [Tory]

                  The purchaser from the commissioners was Elisha Walton.” [144]

                  

                  [Editor’s note: The Union Hotel was named the Cunningham Hotel throughout

                  the war.  Elisha Walton, Major, First Regiment, Monmouth County Militia became the owner.]

 

6/-/79       Loyalists Retaliate in Lower Upper Freehold:  

 

                 With the success of the patriot forces in Monmouth County in capturing and/

                  or killing a number of noted disaffected guerillas operating from the New Jersey Pinelands, the Fenton gang began operating rather regularly for a while in Upper

                  Freehold Township.  On June 21st, the patriotic Andrews family in southern Upper Freehold Township was robbed by the Fenton gang.  On June 31st, the Farr

                  home near the Old Yellow Meeting House, was savagely burglarized.  When

                  thwarted in their attempt to gain entrance to the house by logs placed against

                  the door by the family, the gang shot Farr through the door wounding him in the

                  leg.  Afterwards, they then gained entrance to the house from the rear and stabbed

                  the wounded Mr. Farr to death with bayonets, and shot Mrs. Farr, killing her.

                  Farr was an active Whig, and a deacon of the nearby Baptist Meeting House. [145]

 

                  Lewis Fenton was from Freehold, Monmouth County, a patriot stronghold,

                  and had been apprenticed as a blacksmith.  There is some evidence that he inherited some debt incurred by his father, and upon his father’s death was required to pay off this debt within one year in order to accrue his father’s

                  small estate. There is also a record of his arrest for a petty crime in Freehold,

                  for which he apparently held a grudge. [146]

                 

                 These crimes caused Gov. Livingston to set a reward for Fenton’s capture.  On

                 September 23, 1779, he was shot to death by patriot forces who were hoping

                 to make an example of him along with other disaffected persons who had been             killed or captured.  David J. Fowler, now Director of the David Library of the  American   Revolution, and a noted authority on these episodes, states in his

                 dissertation that the patriot strategy of making examples of these men was

                 unsuccessful.  In fact, he points out that the British complained of cruelties being

                 perpetuated upon Loyalists as well as barbarous acts.  [147]

 

              

Arthur Donaldson Purchases Allentown Mills

Col. Joseph Height Purchases Estate and Forges at Spotswood, Middlesex County

1779

 

3/12/79    Deed Records (Hutchinson) - Arthur Donaldson Purchases Allentown Mills   

 

             Joseph Height, Esq. of Allentown and Hannah his wife sold to Arthur Donaldson,

                of the City of Philadelphia, millwright (and master machinist), the mill properties,

             he bought from Robert Rhea in 1776 for $10,000, “lawful money of the State of

             New Jersey”.   [148]

 

            [Editor’s Note:  Arthur Donaldson moved to Allentown and is later seen in

             Philadelphia in connection with John Fitch in the invention of steam navigation. 

             See;  POSTSCRIPT section of this abstract for more on Arthur Donaldson.]

 

                

9/27/79   Spotswood Estate Advertised for Sale – New Jersey Gazette

               Col. Height Purchases Spotswood Estate, Middlesex County

 

              “Inquisitions having been found and final judgment entered thereon against Miles

                Sherbrooke for joining the English Army, his one third share in a valuable estate

                at Spottswood, consisting of forges, grist mills, dwelling houses, carriages, stock,

                negros &c was advertised for sale by John Lloyd and William Scudder,

                Commissioners of Forfeited Estates in Middlesex County on September 27, 1779.

                Colonel Joseph Height now became the owner.”  [149]

 

                [Editor’s note; Colonel Joseph Height is shown on the ledger book of Robert

                Montgomery at Eglinton for several years after he purchased Spotswood Estate.

                There is also a reference in the papers of Moore Furman of Colonel Height

                supplying pork to David Rhea, Quartermaster at Allentown after this time.]

 

             

 -/ -/80    Spotswood Forges (Middlesex County) Go Out of Existence in 1780:

 

                Perry and Hays Petition the General Assembly;

 

               “that great Waste has been committed in their said Estate by the said Col. Joseph  

                Height and other persons holding under the State; their Forges, one of their

                Grist Mills, Dams & most of their Out-Houses are burnt down or otherwise

                   destroyed;  their Timber from two-thousand acres of land is entirely cut down taken   

                    and carried away…” [150]

 

              “As a result of these various depredations they estimated that their property, which in 

                1777 was worth £10,000, was now reduced to less that £1,500 in value.  From this,   

                we can establish the fact that the forges went out of existence in 1780.”  [151]

 

 

4/28/80   Letter to David Rhea, Quarter Master at Allentown from Moore Furman, Deputy

               Quarter Master General, State of New Jersey:

 

                                                                                                       “Trenton  28th April, 1780

               To Colo. David Rhea

               Dr. Sir:

               There is a quantity between 30 & 40 bbs. Salt Provisions at Spotswood  which is

               much wanted at Camp.  Mr. Hendricks will send four Two Horse Teams to that Service which will not be sufficient to take the whole on & therefore if you propose to put your Teams into the Service you will Let them Joyn Mr. Hendricks four teams and take the whole thing.

 

               Mr. Hendricks or Cox will conduct them to Camp & back to this place where I will join them to some Brigade.

                                                                                             I am your Humble Servant

                                                                                                               Moore Furman.” [152]

 

 

               About this same time, Loyalists were still raiding further out in the far parts of

               Upper Freehold Township.  For example, “About the last of April, the Refugees attacked the house of John Holmes,…and robbed him of a large amount of continental money, a silver watch, gold ring, silver buckles pistols, clothing, & c.”  [153]

         

 

Courts of Admiralty held at Allentown:

1777, 1778,  1779, 1780, 1781, 1783

 

                  Court of Admiralty:

                                                         

                  During the years, 1777- 1783 inclusive, the Court of Admiralty sat at

                  Allentown to adjust the claims of parties (privateers, Militia, etc.) for their

                  share of the prizes received from the sale of vessels and/or cargoes that

                  had been captured from the British.  The court met primarily at the home/

                  tavern of Gilbert Barton and, on occasion, the homes of Adonijah Francis

                  and Benjamin Laurence, and at Randels’ Tavern.  Adjudicating these

                  proceedings were;  Judge Joseph Lawrence, Judge William Livingston,

                  and Judge Bowes Reed.  [154]

           

                  [Editor’s note: Judge William Livingston was elected the 1st Governor of the State

                  of  New Jersey August 31st, 1776.  Before he was elected Governor, he served as

                  Brigadier General of the Militia. [155] ]

 

                 “While the whereabouts of the records of the Court of Admiralty of New Jersey

                   remains a mystery, it can be determined from various other sources (newspaper

                   advertisements, appeals, private correspondence, etc.) just where the court

                   sat, the sites of sales and other details.  Most of the trials were conducted in the

                   west-central part of the state, usually that area between Mount Holly and

                   Trenton.  Of all the locations used, four seem to have been favored sites. 

                   These were:    

                                              The Courthouse at Burlington

                                              Gilbert Barton’s House at Allentown

                                              Rensealer Williams’ House at Trenton

                                              Isaac Wood’s House at Mount Holly

 

                 Other locations where prize cases were heard included: Randles’ Tavern,

                 Allentown; the courthouse at Gloucester, the courthouse at Trenton, the houses

                 of Adonijah Francis and Benjamin Laurence at Allentown, James Esdal’s house,

                 Burlington; Joseph Douglas’s house at Crosswicks, Captain James Green’s

                 house at Freehold; …the last prize cases to be brought before the Court of

                 Admiralty were heard at the home of Adonijah Francis at Allentown

                 May 12, 1783.”   [156]

 

                  [Editor’s note:  A researcher was missing a vital piece of information regarding

                  Admiralty Court proceedings in Allentown.  ‘Randal’s Tavern’  and ‘Gilbert

                  Barton’s House at Allentown’ are the same place.]

 

                 Among the vessels, or vessel/prizes adjudicated by Judge Joseph Lawrence  

                 (unless otherwise noted) at the home of Gilbert Barton, innkeeper, were:

                

The brigantine or vessel named the William & Mary, the sloop or vessel named Duck, the sloop or vessel named Betsy, the sloop or vessel named Bachelor, the sloop or vessel named Hazard, the sloop or vessel named Dispatch, the brigantine named Industry, the sloop or vessel named Canaster, the brigantine or vessel named Carolina Packet, the sloop or vessel named Palm, the brigantine or vessel named Speedwell, the sloop or vessel named Jenny, the schooner or vessel named Dove, the ship or vessel named Love and Unity, the schooner or vessel named Good Intent, the schooner or vessel named Fame, the schooner or vessel named Hannah, the sloop or vessel named George, the ship or vessel named Venus, the sloop or vessel named Peggy, the brigantine or vessel named Recovery,  the schooner or vessel named Marydunces, the sloop or vessel named Good Intent,  the schooner or vessel named  Commerce,  the schooner or vessel named Fortune, schooner or vessel named Rambler, the sloop or vessel named Charming

Patty, the schooner or vessel named Friends, a sloop or vessel named Charming Polly, a sloop named Polly, a sloop named Sally, a schooner named Hope, a sloop named Fanny, a sloop named Success, a sloop named Experiment, a ship named Mermaid, a brigantine named Delight, a sloop named Retrieve, a boat named Friendship, a sloop named Clinton, a schooner named True-Blue, a sloop named Favourite, a brigantine named Britannia, a sloop named Hazard, a sloop named General Greene, a ship named Malton, and a whale boat named Unity. [157] 

 

                  Judge William Livingston adjudicated the William & Mary case.  Judge Bowes

Reed adjudicated cases involving the Canaster, the Carolina Packet, the Dove, and

the Marydunces.  [158]

 

 

Among the vessels, or vessel/prizes adjudicated at the home of Benjamin

Lawrence, innkeeper, were:

 

The schooner named Rust, and the schooner named Flying Fish,  [159]  the schooner  Polly, and the schooner named Dilly Latta.  Joseph Lawrence adjudicated the

claims involving the schooner named Polly and the schooner named Dilly     Latta.  [160]

 

 

In late 1780, John Burrows Jr. was named Marshall of the Admiralty Court

at Allentown.  [161]

 

                 Admiralty Sales:

 

                 “The sites in the state of New Jersey where admiralty sales were conducted

                  included:

 

                                                 [Editor’s note: This list contained 22

                                                 sites.  Allentown was listed as one of

                                                 these sites.]

 

 

                Hearings for these admiralty sales were conducted elsewhere, especially at

                Allentown[162]

          

               [Editor’s note:  The author of Chapter 11 of the book sent to Joseph Truncer

               (apparently for review) wrote the following note in longhand; “The more I

               dig into the Courts of Admiralty, the more I come into contact with Allentown.

               Perhaps the Allentown Historical Society should be the publisher of “Jersey

               Admiralty.”  [163] A half a century later, Gov. William Newell lived in Allentown.

               Governor Newell is known as the father of the United States Coast Guard.]

               

 

Colonel David Rhea Quarter Master for Monmouth County:

November, 1778

 

11/-/78    Quarter Master’s Depot

 

                Probably beginning at the start of the war, but certainly by 1778-1780,

                Allentown was the Quartermaster’s Depot for all of Monmouth County.  All of

                the forage, produce and supplies sent to the armies from Monmouth County

                were shipped or organized from Allentown and it was there that the Quartermaster

                and staff had their headquarters.  David Rhea was Quartermaster at Allentown

                beginning in late 1778. [164]

 

                 [Editor’s note: David Rhea was the former owner of the fulling mill and

                 grist mill at Allentown.  He was a hero at the Battle of Monmouth.]

               

 8/1/79      List of Continental Property at Allentown:

             

                              “A Return of Continental Property in the hands of David

                                Rhea, QM for Monmouth County Allentown Aug 1 1779

                                               

                                                10 Waggons & Geers repairing

                                                  3 Culling Boxes

                                                  2 Dung Forks

                                                  2 Wheel Barrows

                                                  2 Sythes

                                                  4 Artillery Horses sent by Maj. Gorden

                                                  2 Pitch Fork

                                                                                                                                                                                Persons employed in the QM and Forage Departments

                               Allentown Aug 1 1779

 

                               Alexander Ferguson Clk       @ 60 Dollars p. month

                               Guylbert Smith Forage Master  50    do-           do-

 

                                                                                David Rhea

                                                                                QM for Monmouth Co.”  [165]

 

              [Editor’s note: Major Gorden refers to Peter Gorden – Quarter Master at   

              Trenton.[166]]

 

8/1/79    Extract from a List of Officers Appointed in the Dept of the Quarter Master General:

 

                             “Return of Officers Appointed in the Dept. of the Quarter Master

                               General of the Army of the U.S. in New Jersey.

                                                                                                             

                              Monmouth County                               Aug. 1, 1779

 

                              Anderson, Ezekiel                                Forage Master

                              Lawrence, Elisha                                  Deputy Quarter Master

                                           

                              Ferguson, Alexander                            Clerk

                              Smith, Gilberts                                     Forage Master

                              Rhea, David Col.                                  Quarter Master Monmouth Co.”  [167]

 

             Editor’s note: Both Alexander Ferguson and Gilberts Smith were stationed

             at Allentown—see preceding List of Continental Property at Allentown.  There

             is also a letter in the papers of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General

             stationed in New Jersey from Elisha Lawrence to Moore Furman in late 1780,

             from Allentown asking to be retired from his post due to his own business interests.

             Whether or not the request was granted, it appears that he had moved from a

             Foragemaster post in Cranbury earlier to a Quartermaster post at Allentown.] 

 

1/--/80    Extract from a List of Persons Employed by the Quarter Master General:

 

                           “General Return of Persons Employed in the Quarter Master

                             General & Forage Departments in the State of New Jersey…

                              in the Month of January 1780…

 

                             Monmouth County:

 

                             Allentown               David Rhea             Ass. Quarter Master

                                                             Joseph Clayton        Purchasing Forage Master

 

                             Monmouth CH       John Brindley           Purchasing Forage Master

                               

                                                             David Rhea Jr.         Purchaser of Forage Paid by

                                                                                                                 the Bushel

                                                             John Covenhoven    Purchaser of Forage Paid by

                                                                                                                 the Bushel”[168]

      

 

               [Editor’s note: The above reference to ‘Monmouth CH’ refers to Monmouth Court

                House.  Col. David Rhea is also listed in “A Return of the Quartermasters              

                Department - New Jersey Militia” as “Quarter Master” [no date]. [169]  Both

                David Rhea and Elisha Lawrence are listed in a “ Return of Assistant Quarter

                Masters - Militia” as “Assistant Quartermasters” [no date].  [170]  According to his

                military records, Elisha Lawrence was also “Quartermaster & Foragemaster; 

                (Stationed at) Allentown” [no date].  [171] Also in the Furman Papers at the New

                Jersey State Archives, Arthur Donaldson is listed as a ‘Purchaser of Forage by

                the Bushel’ at Allentown. ‘Purchasers of Forage Paid by the Bushel’ were

                men appointed for a task and consequently over a years time there might be

                many others working off and on in this capacity.]

        

    

6/25/80   Joshua Huddy                                      

 

              [Editor’s note: A point of interest; also included in the papers of Moore Furman,

               there is a letter from “David Rhea, Allen Town, June 25, 1780,” showing

               a record of  “Capt. Joshua  Huddy,  late General Forman’s artillery,” delivering

              “teams”  to the quartermaster’s department he collected from a remote part

               of Shrewsbury by the “General’s” advice. [172] Capt. Huddy delivered the letter

               to Moore Furman.   Robert Rhea, Captain, of a Troop of Light Horse, Monmouth County Militia stated in a letter, that refugees under the command of a mulatto named Titus, in the summer of 1780 came up to Colts Neck and captured Huddy at his home, while on a visit and just before the Block House, near Tom’s River was taken; his troop of horse went in pursuit and at Sandy Hook met the refugees as they were taking to their boats.  Robert Rhea’s troops fired on them, wounding Captain Huddy by accident.  Captain Huddy jumped overboard and escaped from the refugees and was escorted home. [173]  Huddy, of the Monmouth Militia, became a ‘cause celebrere’ when he was brutally executed over the brave protestations

               of  his intended executioners. Captain Robert Rhea’s regiment of the Monmouth      

               Militia was composed primarily of men from Upper Freehold which included                        

               Allentown at that time.  [174] ]

 

 

James Rogers marries Harriet Luttrell at the home of David Brearley  [175]

February 16, 1779

 

Spy Reports Mission to Kidnap David Brearley

12/-/80

 

               “In late December 1780 a spy in New York frantically informed a Monmouth

                County patriot that William Gibertson, who had a lieutenant’s commission,

                recently embarked for Sandy Hook with a party of twelve men, all of whom

                were from Monmouth County.  The spy reported that the purpose of Gibertson’s

                mission was to kidnap Governor Livingston, Chief Justice David Brearley,

                or another prominent Whig, and he urged that the Governor and the Chief

                Justice be told.  It is not evident in which Loyalist unit Gibertson was

                commissioned – he may have held what was termed a “territorial commission.”

                …As it turned out, neither Governor Livingston or Chief Justice Brearley were

                kidnapped, so the spy’s message may have been reported in time….it is possible

                that Gibertson’s mission was a rumor.”  [176]

 

               The Gibertson clan, William, William Jr., Gilgert (William Jr.’s uncle),

               were of Dutch or Jersey Dutch origin, and had settled in Upper Freehold

               Township. They were Loyalists, but apparently not Quaker. [177]

 

               “The Gibertsons were similar to the Woodward insurgents in that their period

                of active political dissent grew out of the highly charged atmosphere that

                characterized Monmouth County during the late spring and summer of 1776.

                Like the Woodwards , and their accomplices, William Gibertson, Jr., his father,

                his uncle, and other family members, doubtless organized or attended secret

                rendevous or public meetings during this period; in fact, some of them may have

                been present when Little Anthony Woodward harangued the crowd at Waln’s

                mills.”  [178]

 

Mutiny of the Pennsylvania Line at Morristown– Officers Encamp at Allentown:

January 1781

 

1/1/81    Liberty! The American Revolution, Thomas Fleming:

 

             “In the North, the total collapse of Continental currency forced Washington

              to distribute his army all over New Jersey and New York.  He maintained his

              headquarters at New Windsor, New York…It put many of the regiments

              beyond the aura of Washington’s personal leadership. On January 1, 1781, the

              Pennsylvania troops camped at Morristown drank enough rum to express their

              exasperation at endless months of bad or no rations and no pay.  At nine o’clock

              that night, they mutinied, killed two captains who tried to stop them, and began

              a march on Philadelphia to settle accounts with the Congress.”  [179]

 

             “Major General Anthony Wayne blocked their path with the New Jersey

              Continental line and rushed word to Washington and to the Congress.  The

              politicians reacted with raw panic and prepared to flee, but Washington insisted

              that under no circumstances should the Congress cut and run…Anthony Wayne

              spent the next six days pleading and arguing with the Morristown mutineers.”  [180]

 

1/1/81    Women Camp Followers of the Revolution, Walter Blumenthal:

 

            “ The Pennsylvania Line designated the several small regiments furnished

               by that state as part of the Continental Army, as distinct from the Militia.  The

               Continental Congress was lax in providing provisions, clothing, and pay which

               was eleven months overdue, and, at the end of 1780, the Pennsylvania Line reached

               the limit of its patience.  Almost to a man, they mutinied on January 1, 1781, broke

               open stores of ammunition and provisions, and marched to Princeton where they

               had a showdown with a joint committee of spokesmen from Congress and

               Pennsylvania.  Promised pay, food, and clothing (of which little was forthcoming),

               they returned to duty five days later at Morristown (Mt. Kemble).”  [181]

 

1/4/81    Mutiny in January, Carl Van Doren:

 

              “But about noon or shortly after, two officers of the Line rode up to the

               borders of Princeton to bring Wayne word that eighty armed officers, headed

               by Colonel Craig, were on their way by the Middlebush road to Crannberry

               (now Cranbury), ready to take a position and wait for the settlement of the

               mutiny.  The messengers were stopped by a guard and treated with a great deal

               of insolence, and turned back. (The officers went on from Cranberry [sic] to

               Allentown for the night.)…The Jersey militia were being collected between them

               and New York, between them and Delaware.”  [182]

 

1/-/81     Liberty! The American Revolution- Thomas Fleming

 

             “A few weeks later the New Jersey Continental Line mutinied in a similar fashion.

               this time Washington reacted with severity, seizing four of the ringleaders and

               executing two of them.  The Continental army was obviously nearing collapse.”  [183]

 

                   

Richard Wilgus, Militia- Shot While Keeping Guard

August 1782

 

8/7/82     Battles and Skirmishes in New Jersey of the American Revolution, David Munn

 

               Militiaman Richard Wilgus is shot while keeping guard near Allentown

               to prevent contraband trade with the British. [184]

 

8/7/82     Charles R. Hutchinson:

 

             “Among the casualties of the Revolution, I find the following, -                    

 

              “Richard Wilgus was shot below Allentown August, 1782, while on guard to

               prevent contraband trade with the British.”

 

               Mayor E. M. Woodward says, - Wilgus was shot at Waln’s Mill at a point about one

               hundred yards beyond the mill, towards Imlaystown, just beyond Mrs. Sarah M.

               Hendrickson’s house.  He says [Editor’s note: Isaac] Woodward, a tory (of his own   

               family), lived in the brick house below the mill, near the blacksmith shop.  He had 

               been off upon an expedition dealing with the British, and upon his return home,

               being informed that Wilgus was waiting to capture him, took his gun, and went out 

               and shot him.  He, and others of the Woodward family, afterwards escaped to Nova

               Scotia where their descendants still live.” [185]

 

               [Editor’s note:  During the revolutionary war, the term ‘contraband’ was used

               to denote arms or arms related goods.  Although the term at that time was used

               officially, informally, today it could refer to the “London trade”, or ‘contraband’

               in general.]

 

 

 

POSTSCRIPT:

 

 

Major John Andre (James Thatcher, M.D.’s Journal)

September, 1880

 

 

9/26/80  “At three o’clock this morning an alarm was spread throughout our camp.  Two

                regiments from the Pennsylvania line were ordered to march for West Point…

                It is the treacherous conspiracy of Major-General [Benedict] Arnold, and the

                capture of Major John Andre, adjutant-general to the British army.

 

                After the evacuation of Philadelphia by the British, Arnold was appointed to the

                command of that city…Being afterward, by his own solicitation, entrusted with 

                the command of the post at West Point, he engaged in a secret correspondence

                with Sir Henry Clinton, and actually agreed to put him in command of this very

                important garrison.  The British General… selected Major John Andre, his

                adjutant-general and aid-de-camp, to have a personal interview with the traitor

                and mature a plan…for the surrender of that important post.  A British sloop-of-

                war, called the Vulture, came up the North River, and anchored near King’s ferry

                about twelve miles below West Point.  On board of this vessel were a colonel

                Robinson and Major Andre under the assumed name of John Anderson.  A

                communication was now maintained between Arnold and the persons aboard this

                vessel… In the night of the 21st …a boat brought Major Andre, alias John 

                Anderson, on shore, where he was received by Arnold, and conducted to the house     

                of [Joshua] Smith, within our lines.

 

                The Vulture had been driven from her station by a cannon on shore…It was 

                resolved that Andre should return to New York by land…Arnold gave him a

                passport under the ficticious name of John Anderson…

 

                Having arrived at Tarrytown, however near the lines of the royal army, Andre was

                arrested by one of three men,  who were patrolling near the outposts of the two

                armies.  Alarmed and disconcerted, instead of producing his passport…said Andre,

               “I am a British officer.”…though having the authority of Arnold’s signature availed

                him nothing.  The unfortunate prisoner now produced his gold watch…All his 

                offers were rejected with disdain…Arnold now received the information about ten

                o’clock on the morning of the fifteenth.  At this moment, Major Shaw and Dr.

                McHenry, two of his excellency’s [Washington] aids, ..were at breakfast at

                Arnold’s table.  His confusion was visible…bid a hasty adieu to his wife and was

                soon on board the Vulture…Mrs. Arnold was now in her chamber, in great

                agitation and distress, deprived of her reason and Dr. Eustis in attendance.

 

                Major Andre was conducted to headquarters at Tappan; and a Board consisting of

                fourteen officers, is …directed to sit on the 29th…for his trial. It was to be expected

                that Sir Henry Clinton would make every possible overture…Accordingly, he

                addressed General Washington, claimed the release of Major Andre…but could

                have no influence. During the trial of this unfortunate officer, he conducted with

                unexampled magnanimity and dignity….He requested only to die the death of a

                soldier, and not on a gibbet…This affected the mind of General Washington with 

                the tenderest sympathy…and declined making a reply.

 

                October 2nd- Major Andre is no more among the living…It was a tragic scene…Not

                a murmor or a sigh ever escaped him…A large detachment of troops was paraded,

                and an immense concourse of people assembled: almost all our general and field

                officers except his excellency….He said “I am reconciled to my death, but I detest

                the mode.”…  His remains were placed in an ordinary coffin, and interred at the foot

                of the gallows; and the spot was consecrated by the tears of thousands.”  [186]

 

                [Editor’s note; Major Andre internment was later moved to Westminister Abby.]

 

            

Arthur Donaldson:

March, 1786             

  

3/18/86 “Arthur Donaldson, who…came here from Philadelphia in 1779, was again in    Philadelphia in 1786, and is found in connection with John Fitch and his invention

               of steam navigation, in which Fitch appears to have offered him a partnership: but Donaldson was not satisfied with that and made an unsuccessful attempt to steal

               the whole idea, Fitch says” The thought came originally from France, of which I

            was acquainted before he (Rumsey) bespoke any of his works for stream, and    condended the right of using it with Mr. Arthur Donaldson, in the beginning of 1786, before the Assembly of Pennsylvania, as he attempted at that time to assume the discovery to himself”… Donaldson’, own plan was for drawing water in at or near the  bottom and forcing it out abaft as a means of propelling a vessel forward,” [187]

 

                      “An article in the New England Magazine for June 1893, says:

                          

                          “Fitch had hopes of assistance from a Philadelphian, Arthur Donaldson,

                            a machinist of some note, who seemed enamored with the project,

                            and to whom he offered a partnership, Donaldson who received the

                            idea of steam navigation as something entirely new, would not give

                            Fitch a decisive answer until he had talked the idea over with a friend.

                            Fitch heard with some dismay, soon after this interview, from an old

                            nurse who had been in the Donaldson family, that there was much talk

                            over Donaldson’s invention of the steamboat.  Fitch went at once to the

                            man and demanded an explanation, “Well, Donaldson coolly answered, I

                            have  invented such an improvement in navigation, and I intend to apply

                            for the exclusive privilege of using it,”  Fitch immediately  prepared a

                            petition to the legislature of Pennsylvania, asking for the exclusive right

                            to the propulsion of vessels by “fire and steam”.  He was one day ahead

                            of  Donaldson with his petition, and secured his rights.  The state document

                            bears the date of March 18, 1786, and secured to John Fitch for fourteen

                            years, “the sole and exclusive right of constructing, making, using and

                            employing or navigation all and every species of boats or water craft

                            which might be impelled by the force of fire and steam, in all creeks,

                            rivers, etc, within the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania.” [188]

 

11/20/85  On September 20, 1985 in a letter to Levi Hollingsworth, George Washington

                asks Mr. Hollingsworth to thank Arthur Donaldson for his offer to furnish him

                with a model of his flat bottom boat, ‘Hippopotamus’ and says,

 

                            “Under this information, it would give me great satisfaction to have Mr.

                              Donaldson’s opinion of the utility of this vehicle for my purposes..” [189]

 

               [Editor’s note; Arthur Donalsdson’s letter to Washington, October 1, 1785, with                        

               an engraving of the ‘Hippopotamus’ and an explanation, clipped from The

               Pennsylvania Magazine are also in the Washington Papers at the Library of

               Congress.]

 

Colonel Joseph Height:

 

               Colonel Joseph Height moved to Colts Neck.

 

Major James Henderson Imlay:

1786   

            Major Imlay was graduated from Princeton College in 1786, studied law, was  

            admitted to the bar, and practiced.  He was a counselor in 1796; member of the State

            general assembly 1793-1796 and served as speaker in 1796 and was elected as a

            Federalist to the Fifth and Sixth Congresses.  After leaving Congress, he resumed his

            practice of law in Allentown, New Jersey, where he died March 6, 1823.   Imlay was

            postmaster in Allentown from 1804-1805.  He is buried in the Allentown

            Presbyterian Church Cemetery.  [190]

 

King George III of England

1788

           King George III, in 1788, had a nervous breakdown. He bemoaned the loss of

           the American Colonies, at times talking to people who weren’t there, giving

           orders as if battles were still being fought, etc.  He may have suffered from a

           metabolic disorder.  Some historians had often questioned if perhaps he was mad

           during the revolution.  He did not really recover.  [191]  

 

General Elisha Lawrence

1799

           Elisha Lawrence was buried at the Old Yellow Meeting House in Upper Freehold

           Township.  Although he held the rank of ‘Colonel’ during the war, he was upgraded

           to Brigadier General of the Monmouth Militia after the war.  His tombstone reads…

 

                         “Sacred to the Memory of General Elisha Lawrence who died

                           July 25, 1799.  Aged 53.  A stranger to all ambition but that of

                           being useful.  He was twice Vice President of New Jersey, for

                           several years presiding Judge of the Pleas and after a series of

                           faithful and gallant services in the Revolutionary War he was

                           appointed by his country Brigadier General of the Monmouth

                           Militia.

 

                                             Oft he surveyed the blazing line

                                             When Wars loud conflict rocked the brain

                                              Now sheltered in the realms divine

                                              He treads Heavens ever peaceful plain

                                              Led on by soft eyed Mercies mildest ray

                                              While fellow warriors hail him on his way

 

                           By indulgence of the Generals family, His Companions in Arms

                           Erected this Tribute of Affection the 1st day of January 1800.”  [192]

 

Chaplain McKnight and Family:

1776-

 

            During the war, McKnight served as Chaplain to the 3rd Regiment of the

            Monmouth County Militia.  His eldest son Richard, who was born just 10

            years after McKnight reached America, served as a lieutenant in the militia.

            Charles McKnight, who was born two years after Richard, graduated from

            Princeton and Philadelphia medical school and served as the Surgeon

            General of the Revolutionary Army.  Only Dr. Charles McKnight survived the

            war.  [193]

 

Lieutenant James McMichael:

1783

 

           After transferring regiments several times, On January 1, 1783, he transferred to the

           First Regiment, under Colonel Brodhead, where he served and was discharged at the

           close of the war.  He was a native of Scotland.  In 1789, he is registered as a member

           of the Society of Cincinnati in Pennsylvania.  A few years later, he sailed for

           Scotland but the vessel on which he traveled never reached its destination. [194]

 

           

Colonel David Rhea:

1785

 

            Colonel Rhea became Sheriff of Monmouth County in 1785. [195] According to his

            military records, David Rhea was insane for the last 11 years of his life.  He died in

            June 1821.  [196]

 

Captain Thomas Rodney

1778

 

            Thomas Rodney became Delaware Judge of Admiralty in 1778 and served through

1785.    From 1781 through 1788, he was a member of the Continental Congress,

Serving five times.  He also served in the State Assembly of Delaware in 1786 and

1786.    In 1787, Thomas Rodney served  as Speaker of the State Assembly of

           Delaware.  Later, he became a United States Judge for the Missouri Territory in

1787.    [197]

 

Old Presbyterian Meeting House / Episcopal Church / Methodist Church

 

               Prior to the Church being torn down…

 

              “Concerning the old Dutchman ‘Hans’ or’ Haunnes’..he was a ‘redemptioner’, that

                is, he was sold for his passage money on his arrival in this country, and his time

                was bought by Richard Waln of Waln’s Mill, and was in his employ for several

                years.  Then he became insane but he was still considered harmless…About the

                year 1798,  he appropriated as his headquarters the old Church south of Main St.,

                which appears to have been at that time practically abandoned.  A child of John

                H. Bruere died and was buried in the adjoining graveyard.  The Dutchman dug it

                up with a shingle and for a time kept it with him in the pulpit of the Church until

                someone passing by saw him at a window with the child in his arms and it was

                taken from him and re-interred.  When asked why he had perpetuated this freak,

                he said, “It cried for want of bread.”  [198]

 

 

                [Editor’s note;  Thomas Paine was right; ‘These were the times that tried men’s                         

                souls’.  [199]]

 

MILITARY SERVICE RECORDS AND BIOGRAPHIES

 

 

Among the Allentown Revolutionary War Officers, Were:  [200]

 

Quartermaster William Barton:

 

Lieut., promoted Quartermaster 1st Regiment Continental Troops, Jersey Line.

 

              William Barton was the son of Gilbert Barton, blacksmith, an innkeeper at whose

               home the Courts of Admiralty were held.  Gilbert Barton was the brother-in-law

               of Charles Petit, Assistant Quartermaster General of the United States.  William

               Barton succeeded his father as innkeeper of the Lower Tavern in Allentown which

               is still standing in Allentown.

 

                                           

Colonel David Brearley:

 

   Lieut. Col. 4th Battalion, November 28, 1776; Lieut. Col. 1st Regt. Jan. 1, 1777.

 

   Colonel, 2nd Regt., Monmouth Co. Militia, to May 23, 1777. [201]

 

   Lieut. Colonel, Col. Philip Van Cortlandt’s Regiment, Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Heard’s Brigade, State Troops, June 14, 1776. [202]

 

   Lieutenant Colonel, Col. Ephraim Martin’s 4th Regt., 2nd Establishment, New Jersey Continental Line.[203]

 

   Assigned as Lieutenant Colonel, Col Matthias Ogden’s 1st Regiment., 3rd Establishment, New Jersey Continental Line, March 9, 1779; commission of Nov.

   28, 1776. [204]

 

   Commanded his regiment, Heard’s Brigade, part of the time; was at Battles of   Long Island, New York, August 27, 1776. [205]

 

   Resigned, Mar.17, 1780, to accept office as Chief Justice of the State of New Jersey. [206]

 

   Colonel David Brearley, a young Allentown lawyer, became the 2nd Chief Justice  of the Supreme Court of New Jersey, and was a member of the Federal and State Conventions, 1787.  He was a United States Judge, District of New Jersey and  signer of the United States Constitution. Capt. Joseph Brearley was his brother

   his brother.  David Brearley’s home is still standing in Allentown.  See;  POSTSCRIPT section of this abstract for more information.

 

 

Captain James Bruere:

 

               First Lieut, Colonel Lawrence’s Regiment, Monmouth; Captain ditto. [207]

 

Colonel David Hay ( or Hays)

 

              First Lieutenant, Captain Robert Rhea’s Company, First Regiment, Colonel David

              Brearley, commissioned in August 1775, served two months in 1776.  Lieutenant,

              Captain Barzilla Grover’s Company, First Regiment, July 1776.  Served as First

              Lieutenant, five months in 1777, three months in 1778, three months in 1779, three

              months in 1780, three months in 1781, several months in 1782.  Served until the end

              of the war.  Born 1752.  At Battle of Monmouth, NJ, June 28, 1778.  Died

              Monmouth County, N.J. August 23, 1834 leaving a widow named Margaret, and

              two children, James N. and Sarah.  [208]

 

[Editor’s note:  There is a record in the New Jersey State Archive Military Records of a Monmouth County ‘Hay’ who served as Captain, Company of Artillery, about

beginning of 1779, six weeks.  John McCann was the First Lieutenant, and David McCann was the Second Lieutenant.]

 

[Editor’s note; Colonel David Hay lived at the corner of Main St. and Paine St,

(as Church Street was then called).]

 

         

Colonel Joseph Height:

 

Major, 2nd Regt., Burlington County Militia; served in Monmouth County under command of Col. Charles Read, apprehending insurgents and disaffected persons, June and July, 1776.  Lieutenant Colonel, Col. Thomas Reynolds’s 2nd Regt., Burlington County Militia, appointed by Council of Safety, 9th Apr. 1777, appointment confirmed by legislature, 6th June 1777.  Was ordered from Woodbury to Cooper’s Ferry, 5th Nov. 1777, to relieve troops belonging to Gen. Silas Newcomb’s Brigade; at engagement at Haddonfield and Gloucester, 25th Nov. 1777; served at Haddonfield in December 1777; at Haddonfield and Cinnaminson and Mt. Holly, Jan. and Feb. 1778; served at Haddonfield and Monmouth in June, 1778; served at Egg Harbor, Oct. 1778.  Dismissed, 25th Dec. 1779.  Assistant Commissary of Purchases; signed certificates in the Quartermaster General’s Department. [209]

 

Captain William Height:

 

Captain and Wagonmaster, Wagonmaster General’s Department in 1776 and 1777.  Express Rider to Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Haight’s 2nd Regiment, Burlington County Militia in 1777.  Private, Troop of Cavalry, 1st Regiment, Monmouth  County Militia under Lieutenant James Cox and Captain Furman Mount; served monthly tours in 1778 and 1779.  Seaman, Letter of Marque, “Patty”, Captain Thomas Read; enlisted May 1, 1780; discharged January, 1781.  Midshipman, U.S.S. “Trumball”, Captain James Nicholson; appointed May 1, 1781, in Philadelphia; captured at sea, August, 1781; confined on a Prison Ship in New York; exchanged at Elizabeth, New Jersey, November 15, 1781.  Was a resident of Monmouth County, New Jersey; age given as 15 years.  [210]

 

[Editor’s note: William Height was a resident of Allentown, New Jersey.] 

 

 

Captain David Imlay:

 

Ensign & Lieutenant, Monmouth Militia.  Ensign in Capt. Andersons Company, Col. Holmes Regt. State Troops.  Lieutenant ditto. Captain ditto.

 

Major James H. Imlay:

 

Three Month’s Men called to guard the coast of Monmouth County, 1778, and 1780, Elisha Lawrence, Colonel, James H. Imlay, Major, Allentown Company, James Bruere, Captain, Charles McCoy, Lieutenant. [211]

 

 James H. Imlay, an Allentown lawyer, became a member of the New Jersey State General Assembly, where he became speaker, and was a member of the United States Congress.  See: POSTCSRIPT section of this abstract for more information.

 

Lieutenant William Imlay:

 

Lieutenant, Captain James Bruere’s Company, Major William Montgomery’s   Battalion, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, August, 1776, for two weeks.  Lieutenant, Captain James Bruere’s Company, Major William Montgomery’s Battalion, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, October 1777, for two weeks, was at battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777.  Lieutenant, Monmouth County Militia, November, 1777, for two weeks.  Lieutenant, Captain James Bruere’s Company, Major William Montgomery’s Battalion, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s Second Regiment Monmouth County Militia, January, 1778, for one month.  Lieutenant, Captain James Bruere’s Company, Major William Montgomery’s  Battalion, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, February, 1778, for one month.  Lieutenant, Captain James Bruere’s Company, …,

Lieutenant, Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, May 1778, for one-half month.  Lieutenant, Captain James Bruere’s Company, Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, July and August, 1778, 1778 for one month.  Lieutenant, Captain James Bruere’s Company, Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, October 1778, for one month.  Lieutenant, Lieutenant, Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, December, 1778, for one month.  Lieutenant, Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, January 1779 for one-fourth month.  Lieutenant, Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia, February 1779 for one-fourth month.  [212]    Also:

 

               Captain, Monmouth Militia, March,  (1776?) six consecutive months. Captain,   

               Monmouth County Militia, September,  (1776?)  (succeeded by Captain Jonathan

               Pitman.) Lieutenant, Monmouth Militia, by remonstrance, dated March 14, 1777. [213]

 

               William Imlay was the son of John Imlay of Allentown.  He later succeeded

                his father as the owner of the Imlay Mansion on Main St.

                      

 

Colonel Elisha Lawrence:

 

            “ Name, Elisha Lawrence; Rank, Quartermaster & Foragemaster; stationed at

              Allentown.” [214]

 

            “Three Months men called to guard the coast of Monmouth County, 1778 and 1780.

              Elisha Lawrence, Colonel.  James H. Imlay, Major.  Allentown Company. James

              Bruere, Captain.- Charles McCoy, Lieutenant.” [215]

 

John Longstreet, Jr.,

 

Major William Montgomery:

 

Capt. 2nd Regt. Monmouth Militia: 1st Major, Do. Oct 13, 1777. [216]

 

             “Major, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s 2nd Regiment, Monmouth County Militia,                                    August, 1776, for two weeks.  Major, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s 2nd Regiment,

Monmouth County Militia, October, 1777, for two weeks: was at battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777.  Major, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s 2nd Regiment,

Monmouth County Militia, January 1778, for one month.  Major, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s 2nd Regiment, Monmouth County Militia,  February, 1778 for one

month.  Major, Colonel Elisha Lawrence’s Second Regiment, Monmouth County

Militia, March and April, 1778 for one month.”  [217]

 

Major William Montgomery was First Major of the 2nd Regiment, Monmouth                 County Militia. [218] He married Mary Forman Rhea, the daughter of Mary and Robert Rhea.  His records are incomplete here. There are 17 Cards on this man at the New Jersey State Archives.

 

Dr. James Newell:

 

               Surgeon, Second Regiment, Foot Militia, May 7, 1776.  Commission signed

                by Samuel Tucker and John Hart. [219]

 

               [Editor’s note: Dr. James Newell lived where the Allentown Library now stands.]

 

Colonel Samuel Quay:

 

              “Colonel, Monmouth Militia, (at Battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778?)  An

                Irishman of the Cavalry. Colonel, Monmouth Militia, May 1, _____,  (six

                weeks).”  [220]

  

Colonel David Rhea Jr.:

 

 “The Provincial Congress of New Jersey, at Trenton N. J. Oct. 29, 1775, by a resolve recommended the following officers for the two Battalions to be raised in the State,

 

      Name, David Ray; Rank, Major for the Western Battalion.  (2nd

      Battalion. 1st Establishment)

      The Continental Congress ordered the President to sign the above

      commissions.

   

      Wm. Maxwell, Colonel  }  For the Western Battalion

       Israel Shreve, Lt. Col.   }   For the Western Battalion” [221]

 

 

Major, Second Battalion, New Jersey Continental Line, in 1775; went to Canada.  promoted Lieutenant Colonel, Second Battalion, New Jersey Continental Line, shortly after return from above service, in which capacity he served for about two and one half years.  Insane 1820.  Died Monmouth County, N.J. June, 1821. [222]

 

 

Second Battalion of the New Jersey Troops, Commanded by Colonel Maxwell, Lt.Col. Israel Shreve and Major David Ray -      (all filled by Dec. 25, 1775).

    

 

     1 Capt. Wm. Faulkner                                5 Capt. Richard Howell

     1 Lt. James Dillon                                      1 Lt. John Noble Cumming

     2 Lt. Nathaniel Bowman                            2 Lt. Seth Bowman

     Ens. John Sparks Jr.                                   Ens. Samuel Naglee

 

     2 Capt. Joseph Brearley                             6 Capt. John Budd Scott

     1 Lt. Thomas Yard                                     1 Lt. James Maxwell

     2 Lt. Jona. Phillips                                     2 Lt. John Higgens

     Ens. Thomas Ryerson                                Ens. Francis Duclos

 

     3 Capt. James Lawrey                               7 Capt. Joseph Stout

     1 Lt. John Hollinshead                               1 Lt. Samuel Reading

     2 Lt. James Ashmore                                 2 Lt. Ephraim Anderson

     Ens. Samuel Hendry                                  Ens. Aaron Lane, Jr.

 

                   4 Capt. Wm. Shute                                      8 Capt. Archibald Shaw

                    1 Lt. Henry Fries                                        1 Lt. Henry Luce

                    2 Lt. Jeremiah Smith                                  2 Lt. Wm. Helms

                    Ens. Wm. Parrot                                         Ens. Geo. Reynolds [223]

 

 

Major, Second Battalion, First Establishment, November 28th, 1776

               retired (July 1, 1778) (Transferred to 4th Battalion, January 1, 1777). [224]

               

David Rhea appears in a list of officers serving in the Continental Army belonging to Col. William Maxwell’s Regiment, October 17th, 1776 .[225]

 

 

               “Arrangement of the Second New Jersey Battalion, February 4, 1777:

 

                     Name, David Rhea; Rank, Lieutenant Colonel.

                     Israel Shreve, Colonel.

                     Richard Howell, Major.

                     Luther Halsey, Adjutant.

                     Charles Axford, Quartermaster

                     Wm. Chute, Paymaster.

                     Lewis Howell, Surgeon” [226]

 

 

              David Rhea also appears in “a return of Commissioned and Staff Officers of

              Maxwell’s Brigade February 5, 1778:

 

                     Second Regiment

                     Name, David Rhea, Rank, Lieutenant Colonel.

                     Applied for pension; now 1818, living in New Jersey.

               

                     Matthias Ogden               Colonel

                     Richard Howell               Major

 

                     (signed)  Wm. Maxwell

                      Br. General.”  [227]

 

Appears to have been in charge of the Wagonmaster’s Department, and called ‘Colonel’- December 1778, three months.  Appears to have been Colonel (third)

Monmouth Regiment, June 1780 to the end of the war. [228]

           

There is a record of David Rhea, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, certifying at Camp Valley Forge (no date) that Lieut. George Reynolds, of said regiment settling his accounts Dec. 31, 1777. [229]

 

               Quartermaster for Monmouth County, posted in Allentown, at least Dec. 1778,

               until at least 1780. [230]

 

               October 30, 1778, David Rhea described himself as Lieut. Colonel, Second Jersey

               Regiment, Jersey Brigade, in ‘Elizabeth Town’. [231]

 

               [ These records are incomplete. More will be added as time permits.]

             

David Rhea Jr. and Robert Rhea were brothers.  John or ‘Jonathon’ Rhea was the son of Robert Rhea. David Rhea (the nephew) was the son of Robert Rhea and the nephew of David Rhea Jr.  David Rhea Jr. was the brother-in law of Major

               William Montgomery who married his sister.

 

Lieutenant David Rhea (the nephew)

             

              The following military record appears under the spelling, ‘David Ray’- Monmouth  

              County:

 

 “Lieutenant, Captain John Walton’s Troop of Cavalry, Colonel Asher Holmes’ Regiment, May 1778, served one year.  At the Battle of Monmouth, N.J. June 28, 1778.

Lieutenant, Captain John Walton’s Troop of Cavalry, Colonel Asher Holmes ‘ Regiment, Fall of 1779, served one month.

Lieutenant, Captain John Walton’s Troop of Cavalry, Colonel Asher Holmes’ Regiment, 1780, served six months.

Lieutenant, Captain John Walton’s Troop of Cavalry, Colonel Asher Holmes’ Regiment, 1781, served four months.” [232]

 

  “Lieutenant, “Captain John Walton’s Troop, Light Dragoons, Monmouth;

Lieutenant, Captain Walton’s Company, State Troops, (horseman): Lieutenant, Captain Nixon’s Troop, Light-Horse, 1777, Middlesex.” [233]

 

Military Records under the spelling ‘David Ray’ – Middlesex County:

  “Coronet, Captain Robert Nixon’s Troop of Horse, Middlesex Militia, January 1777,

   for three months.”  [234]

 

               David Rhea (the nephew) is also referenced in military records as:

 

             “First Regiment, Monmouth Militia,

               Name, David Rhea: Rank, Adjutant in Service from June 7, 1778 to July 1778.

               Name, David Rhea; Rank, Adjutant,…June 9, 1779.”  [235]     and,

 

             “First Regiment, Monmouth Militia,

Name, David Rhea: Rank, Adjutant; November 15, 1778 to January 15, 1779.” [236]

and,  “Adjutant, ( ) Regiment, Monmouth Militia, (1780).”  [237]

 

             “Adjutant, 1st Regiment, Monmouth; Adjutant, Battalion, State Troops, June 7,  

              1780.”  [238]

 

Captain John Rhea:

 

Sergeant, Captain John Walton’s Company of Light Dragoons, raised and stationed in Monmouth County under Major Samuel Hays, State Troops, Enlisted February 1, 1782, Discharged December 15, 1782.  He is described as 5ft. 10 in. tall, light hair, blue eyes with a light complexion, age 23. [239]

         

               Ensign, Capt. Anderson’s Co., 2nd Battalion, Jan. 1, 1777;  Lieutenant, Captain

               Anderson’s Co., 2nd Battalion, April 1, 1778;  Ensign, Captain Anderson’s

               Co., 2nd Battalion, Jan. 1, 1781; Captain by ‘brevet’.  In later years, he was known

               as the ‘General’.” [240]

 

               John or ‘Johnathan’ Rhea was the son of Robert Rhea and the nephew of

               David Rhea.  Johnathon Rhea, with his father and uncle was at one time an

               owner of the mills at Allentown. In those deeds, he is described as a Philadelphia    merchant.  He is only included in this list due to those family ties.

 

Captain Robert Rhea:

 

Captain, (1st Regiment) Monmouth County Militia,

    

                       “Captain Robert Rhea’s Co., Monmouth Militia

 

     Robert Rhea Captain                                    Allison Ely

     William Montgomery 1st Lieu                        Richard Ely

     James Brewer [sic] 2 Lieut                            William Sarent

                    John Robins Serg                                           Edward Taylor

     William Imlay Serg                                       Robert Lawrence

     Andrew Moore Serg                                      Robert Wright

     John Rogers Serg                                           Jcob [sic] Robins

     Joseph Wood                                                 Zec. Robins

     Nathaniel Foster                                            James Cox

     Thomas Cox                                                  Elijah Field

     Robert Montgomery                                      John Slack

     Samuel Qua [sic]                                           Isaac Antrum

     Isaac Imlay                                                    Job Clevenger

     Wilson Hunt                                                  Job Leming

     William Cox                                                  Isaac Leming

     William Fagen                                               Francis Boston(Bouton)(?)

     Elisha Newell                                                Fenick Cox

     Samuel Imlay                                                Nathaniel Cox

     Ephram Foster                                               Azalial (?) Seuley(?)

     Burnet (?) Montgomery                                Aaron Ivins

     Thomas Leland                                             William Halton

     Richard Horsfield                                          Jesse Freeze

     David Morriss                                               Aaron Robins

     William Dye                                                 Randle Robins

     John Weygold                                               Samuel Robins

     Henry Freeze                                                 Nathan Robins

     James Cox                                                     Azariah Vaughn

     David Gorden                                                James Vaughn

     Joseph Shreeve                                              Richard Jackson

     William Barton                                              Isaac Wright

     Samuel Cox                                                   William Montgomery

     James Robins                                                 Henry Allen

     Thomas Efferingham                                     Joseph Montgomery

     Charles Hay                                                   Peter Covenhoven

     David Chambers                                            Robert Evilman

     Joseph Lawrence                                            Peter Imlay

     Derrick Barkalow                                          Arthur Barkalow

     Nathaniel Efferingham                                  Johnathan Stansbury

     Albert Mason                                                 Robert Keith (or Heeth)

     Abram Button                                                Samuel Wilguss

     Asher Cox                                                      Ephram Robins

     Timothy Herbert                                            William Cafferty

     William Patten                                               John Armor

     John Covenhoven                                          Benjamin Rogers

     George Kennedy                                            Nathan Allen

     Lewis Bearmore                                             Jacob Moon

     Robert Sarent                                                 William Fisher

     William Wilguss                                            David Imlay

     Kenneth Perine                                               Jessie Robins

     Aaron Cox                                                      Jacob Garrison

     William Norton                                              Thomas Jacobs

     Jushua Norton                                                Abel Ivins

     Isaac Combs                                                   Mathew Walton

     Thomas Combs                                              Richard Harcourt

     James Combs                                                 John Davenport

                                                                            John Lipes” [241]

 

               Although listed under ‘Freehold’ in the military records, the men commanded

by Robert Rhea appear to be primarily from the Upper Freehold area which included Allen’s Town at that time. 

 

 

 “Captain, First Regiment, Monmouth Militia, May 10, 1776, one month.

Captain, First Regiment, Monmouth Militia, July 10, 1776, one month.

Captain, First Regiment, Monmouth Militia, August 10, 1776, one and one-half months.

Captain, First Regiment, Monmouth Militia, other tours previous to 1780.” [242]

 

Captain, First Regiment, Colonel David Brearley, August 1775 to July 1776,

He declined to serve any longer.  Succeeded by Barzillan Grover as Captain. [243]

 

Robert Rhea’s name also appears on a list of Captain John Walton’s Company of

Light Dragoons (State Troops) raised and stationed at Monmouth under the command of Maj. Samuel Hays,  (State Troops), March 15, 1782.  [244]

 

[This Robert Rhea was “a private who enlisted in Freehold on January 11, 1782;

Discharged, December 15, 1782;  Stature, 5 ft.7in.;  Hair, Brown;  Eyes, Blue; Complexion, Dark;  Age 18,  Born, Freehold.” [245]   ???]

    

Robert Rhea and David Rhea were brothers.  John or ‘Johnathan’ Rhea was Robert                  Rhea’s son.  Robert Rhea was (with his wife, brother and nephew) an owner of the

               mills at Allentown.

 

Midshipman James B Stafford:

 

Midshipman & acting Lieutenant of U.S. Frigate “Alliance”.  Midshipman & acting Lieutenant of U.S. Frigate “Bon Homme Richard”. [246]

 

Private Jacobus Swangler:

 

                Private, Capt. Bruere’s Company, 2nd Regt. [247]

 

[Editor’s note: Although Jacobus Swangler was not an officer, he is included in this list for clarity.]

 

 Major Elisha Walton:

 

               Major, First Regiment, Monmouth County Militia. He served at the Battles of

               Germantown and Monmouth.

              

               [Editor’s note: More will be added later regarding this man’s service.]

                  

 Private Garrett Wikoff:

 

             “Private, Monmouth Militia: was taken prisoner on February 13, 1777, and

               exchanged August 7, 1778, while in the New Jersey Militia. Affidavit taken

               Monmouth County, N.J., February 18, 1839, aged eighty years. ” [248]

 

               Private, Captain Matthew Freeman’s Company, 1st Regiment, Middlesex Militia,

               Fall of 1778, one month. Private, Captain Matthew Freeman’s Company, 1st

               Regiment, Middlesex Militia, and Private, Captain Peter Wikoff’s Company,

               2nd Regiment, Col Samuel Forman, Monmouth Militia, afterwards, monthly tours

               until the end of the war.  Born 1762.  Died Somerset County, N.J., January 12,

               1838”  [249]

 

                During the war, Garret Wikoff  lived at 45 S. Main St. in Allentown.  After

                the war, but before the end of the 18th century, Garret Wikoff  designed the

                home at  98 S. Main St. in Allentown.  Both of these homes are still standing.

                Garret Wikoff was the son of Captain Peter Wikoff.

 

 

Captain Peter Wikoff:

 

             “Captain, Second Regiment.  Had skirmish at Crosswicks Creek Bridge, N.J., June

               27, 1778.  At the Battle of Monmouth, N. J., June 28, 1778.” [250]

 

             “Captain, Second Regiment, Monmouth Militia, fall of 1776, monthly tours until

               March, 1777.” [251]  [Original Signature]

 

             

             “A return of the Names of the officers fit and unfit for Duty [Sic], Colonel David

               Forman’s Battalion, October 5, 1776:

 

                      Name,  Peter Wikoff;  Rank;  Captain, sick, absent.

 

                               6th Company

                               Peter Wikoff,  Captain.

                               Gilbert Longstreet,  1st Lieut.

                               Ephraim Jenkins,  2nd Lieut.

                               John Hutchins,  Ensign” [252]

 

 

               Name, Peter Wikoff, Rank, Captain, Colonel David Forman’s (Second) Battalion,

               Brigadier General Nathaniel Heard’s (Second Brigade), Major General Nathaniel

               Greene’s Division, Continental Army, by return dated August 1776.” [253]

               

             “Captain, State Troops, Spring 1776, five months.  At Battle of Long Island, New

               York, August 27, 1776.” [254]

 

             “Captain, State Troops, July 15, 1776, for five months.  (At Battle of White Plains,

               New York, October 28, 1776.)” [255]

 

             “Captain, Colonel David Foreman’s Regiment, State Troops, June 1776, for five

               months.  Samuel Conn was Lieutenant; and John Hutchins, Ensign.  At Battle of

               (August 27, 1776); and White Plains, (October 28, 1776). [256]

              “Captain, Second Regiment, Monmouth County Militia; …Samuel Conn was

               Lieutenant.  In skirmish at Brunswick; and at the Battle of Short Hills, (June 26,

               1777).” [257]

 

             “Captain, State Troops, July 15, 1776, for five months.  (At Battle of White Plains,

               York, August 27, 1776, and White Plains, New York, October 28, 1778).”[258]

               Captain, (Second Regiment,) Monmouth Militia, by remonstrance dated March 14,

               1777.” [259]

 

             “Captain, Second Regiment, Monmouth Militia, Colonel Elisha Lawrence, October

               1777, one month.  At Battle of Germantown, Pa., October 4, 1777.” [260]

 

             “Captain, Second Regiment, Monmouth Militia, May 1776, for one month.

               Captain, Second Regiment, Monmouth Militia, early fall of 1777, served two

               weeks.  At Battle of Germantown, Pa., October 4, 1777.” [261]

               

              “Peter Wikoff.  Captain, Second Regiment, Monmouth, Captain, State Troops.

               (Taken prisoner.)   Guide to General Washington at the Battle of Monmouth,

               June 28, 1773).  Captain, Col. Foreman’s Battalion, Heard’s Brigade, June 14,

               1776.” [262]

 

               [Editor’s note:  On this military record at the New Jersey State Archives, there

               is a longhand note questioning whether Peter Wikoff was taken prisoner.  It could

               be an error.]

 

 

              “Return of the Regiment of Foot, in the Service of the United Colonies, commanded

               Col. David Forman, November 3, 1776:

 

                        Name, Peter Wikoff; Rank, Captain, Strength of his command,-

 

                        Officers present, commissioned,- 1 Captain; 1 First Lieut.; 1 Second Lieut:,

                        1 Ensign.

 

                        Non-commissioned, 1 Sargent.

 

                        Rank & File,- 25 Present fit for duty; 2 Sick present; 6 Sick Absent; 3 on

                        commend; 1 on furlough; Total, 53.

 

                        Wanting to complete, 1 Drum & Fife; 19 Privates.” [263]

 

 

              “A Return of the Regiment Encamped at Mount Washington Commanded by Col.

                Forman, Sept. 19, 1776:

 

                        Name,  Peter Wikoff: Rank, Captain,- Strength of his command-

 

                        Officers present, commissioned, 1 First Lieut., 1 Second Lieut., 1 Ensign.

               

                        Non-commissioned, 2 sergeants; 1 Drum & Fife;

 

                        Rank & File,- 30 present fit for duty;  4 sick present; 7 sick absent; 2 on

                        Commend;  Total, 43.

 

                        Wanting to complete, 1 Drum & Fife; 29 Privates.” [264]

 

 

                 Lieutenant, Captain David Baird’s Company, First Regiment, Monmouth Militia,

                 attached to Major William Montgomery’s Battalion, Colonel Samuel Forman’s

                 Second Regiment, Monmouth Militia, Brigadier-General David Forman, latter part

                 of June 1778, two weeks.  (At Battle of Monmouth June 28, 1778.) [265]    

                       

                 [Editor’s note;  Peter Wikoff lived at   S. Main St. in Allentown.  The house is still

                 standing.  Samuel Wikoff of Allentown was Peter Wikoff’s brother.]

 

Private Richard Wilgus:

 

Private, Capt. Bruere’s Company, shot below Allentown, near Waln’s Mills.

 

[Editor’s note; Although Richard Wilgus was not an officer, he is included in this list for clarity.]

 

 

 

Officer’s List of the Monmouth Militia

Probably 1775

 

             “Robert Rhea   Capt.

               David Hay   Lieu

               Wm. Montgomery   2 Do-

               James Bruere   Ensign

               Peter Wikiff   Capt

               John Longstreet   2 Lieut.

               Tobias Hendrickson    Ens

               Barzilla Grover   Capt.

               Nathaniel Polhemus   1 Lieu

               Gilbert Longstreet   Ensn

               Gisbert Gilberson   Capt   (who has not yet signed the Association Aug. 19, 1775)

                ---------   Penine   1 Lieut

               Laurence Taylor   Ensn

               Statford

               Reuben Randolph   Capt

               Nathan Crane   1 Lieu

               ----------------

               Dover

               James Mott   Capt

               ----------------

                ---------------

               John Stout   Captain”[266]

 

               [Editor’s note: Penine is probably Perrine. ‘Do’ means ‘ditto’.]

 

 

 

Three Months Men – Called to Guard the Coast of Monmouth County

1778 and 1780

 

             “Elisha Lawrence - Colonel

               James H. Imlay -   Major

               

               Allentown Company

               James Bruere - Captain

               Charles McCoy -  Lieutenant

 

               William Walton - Serg.

                Henry Forease - Corp.

 

                Henry Bird                                                    David Call

                David Brown                                                Hugh Jackson

                James Colvin                                                Fredrick Miller

                George Collins                                             George Mount  (Died at Burnt Tavern

                James Compton                                            Hugh Newell                    from fatigue)

                John Compton                                              Robert Parent

                William Clark                                               Issac Pidgeon

                Robert Chambers                                          William Paxon

                John Huggins                                                Richard Purdy

                Cornelius Drisky                                           Jacobus Swangler

                 Phillip Dennis                                              Elisha Still

                 Eddy Griffy                                                  Richard Wilder”  [267]

                

 

[Editor’s note:  James Colvin, a neighbor of Captain James Bruere also died at some time during  the war.  Hugh Newell, blacksmith, was the grandfather of Governor William Newell

of Allentown.  [268]  Hugh Newell lived in what is now known as Washington Township, Mercer County, N.J. and is buried at Tennent Church, Freehold, Monmouth County, N.J.]

 



 

 

[1]    Ewald, Captain Johann, Field Jager Corps, Diary of an American War, A Hessian Journal, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut 1979, First and Second Campaigns, 1776 and 1777.

[2]    Hutchinson, Esq., Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series 1], Book 4.

[3]    Hull, Ellis F., A Brief History of Old Allentown, Monmouth County New Jersey (Third Revision)

[4]    Bordentown 1682-1976, a project of the Bordentown Area Bicentennial Committee and the Bordentown Historical Society, copyright 1977 by the Bordentown Historical Society, p.56.

[5]    Papers of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General, New Jersey, copies available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[6]    Papers of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General, New Jersey, copies available at the New Jersey

State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey. and  Military Service Records, John Imlay, available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

7   Ewald, Captain Johann, Field Jager Corps, Diary of an American War, A Hessian Journal, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 1979, First and Second Campaigns, 1776 and 1777.

[7]    Livingston, Gov., Governor, New Jersey,  See all of  Governor Livingston’s original papers including those at the New York Historical Society, Central Park West.   

[8]      Woodward, Major E. M. Woodward, History of Burlington County, Everts & Peck, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1883, p.467.

[9]     Hoesen, Walter H. Van, Early Taverns and Stagecoach Days in New Jersey,, Associated University Presses, Inc., 1976, pp. 66, 67.

[10]       Clan MacNauchtan in America,  and

[11]      Storms, F. Dean, History of the Allentown Presbyterian Church, Allentown Messenger, Allentown, New Jersey, 1970, pp. 41-48.

[12]      Storms, F. Dean, History of the Allentown Presbyterian Church, Allentown Messenger, Allentown, New Jersey, 1970, p. 48.

[13]     Boatner III, Mark Mayo, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, David McKay Company, Inc., New York, New York, 1966, p. 99.

[14]    Boatner III, Mark Mayo, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, David McKay Company, Inc., New

York, New York, 1966, p. 931.

[15]    Gerlach, Larry R., Prologue to Independence, New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, p. 216, and American Revolution MSS, Monmouth County Historical Association, and Edward Taylor to William Cooper, Clerk of the Boston Committee of

Correspondence, October 12, 1774,PNJHS, ser 1, 1, 187-88; Benjamin Austin on behalf of the Boston Committee for Donations, October 21, 1774,  “Correspondence… between… Boston and Contributors of Donations,” 110-12; Taylor to Josiah Holmes, January 11,1775, East Jersey MSS, NJHS.  Taylor informed Cooper that 1200 bushels of rye had been sent, but Austin acknowledged receipt of 1140; the reason for the discrepancy is unknown.

[16]    Gerlach, Larry R. Prologue to Independence, New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution,

Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, p. 217 and the Boston Gazette, January 16, 1775.

[17]    Keogler, Mary Lou, The Burrows Mansion of Matawan, New Jersey,  Snell Graphics, Eatontown, New Jersey,  1978,  p.48.

[18]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, Fight for the Delaware 1777, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, 1970.

[19]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon During the Revolutionary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor Michigan, copyright David J. Fowler, 1987, p. 58.

[20]     Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 6, 7, 39, 40, 45, 43

[21]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles, Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series1], Book 4. p.17.

[22]   Boyer, Charles S., Early Forges & Furnaces in New Jersey, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia Pennsylvania., pp. 159-160.  and,

      Woodward, Carl, Ploughs and Politics, Charles Read of New Jersey and his notes on agriculture, 1715-1774, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1941, p. 216

[23]   Boyer, Charles S., Early Forges & Furnaces in New Jersey, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia

Pennsylvania, pp. 159-160, and

     Woodward, Carl, Ploughs and Politics, Charles Read of New Jersey and his notes on agriculture, 1715-1774, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1941, p. 216.

[24]     Boyer, Charles S., Early Forges & Furnaces in New Jersey, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia

Pennsylvania, pp.159-160, and

     Woodward, Carl, Ploughs and Politics, Charles Read of New Jersey and his notes on agriculture, 1715- 1774, Rutgers University Press, New Jersey 1941, p. 216.

[25]    American Archives, 5th Series, vol. 1, and p. 35.    

[26]   A Collection of Historical Information by the students of the Rumson High School, Rumson, New Jersey, Interested Citizens of the Community and the School Faculty, History of Rumson, The Schuyler Press, Asbury Park, New Jersey, Copyright, 1944, by the Historical Committee, p. 73.

[27]    Bordentown, 1682-1976, A Project of the Bordentown Area Bicentennial Committee and the Bordentown

Historical Society, The Kingswood Group, copyright 1977 by the Bordentown Historical Society, p.56.

[28]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon

in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, U.M.I., Ann Arbor, Michigan, copyright by David J. Fowler,

1987, p. 42.

[29]   Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey during the Revolutionary War, U.M.I., Ann Arbor Michigan, copyright by David J. Fowler, 1987, pp. 55-57.

[30]     Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon

in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1987, p.43,

from Wm. Howe to Lord Germain, 7 July 1776, GW Writings, vol. 5, 227-28n.;  John Covenhoven to John Hancock, 2 July 1776, PCC, r82, 168, p. 161;  Washington to Wm. Livingston, 8 July 1776, WL Paps., vol. 1, 80-81.

[31]     Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan,1987, p.43.

[32]     Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1987, p.44, from American Archives, 4th Series, 6:   1290, 1630, 1636-37, 1639, 1666-67;  5th Series 1: 37-38, 139; Min. Prov. Cong., 476, 489, 575; NJA, 2nd Series !: 138; JCC, vol. 5, 508.

[33]     McMichael, Lieutenant James, Diary of Lieutenant James McMichael of the Pennsylvania Line, 1776-1783, Printed in The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol XVI, No.2, 1892, p.131.

[34]    McMichael, Lieutenant James,  Diary of Lieutenant James McMichael of the Pennsylvania Line, 1776- 1783, Printed in The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol XVI, No. 2. 1892,  p.129.

[35]     Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1987, p.44..

[36]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon During the Revolutioary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor Michigan, 1987, pp. 44, 45, from American Archives, 5th Series 1: 726, 1534-35; JCC, Vol. 9, 971;  WL Paps., vol. 1, 343n.

[37]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon

in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1987, pp. 45, 46, 47, 48, 49.

[38]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, The Fight For The Delaware 1777, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, 1970.

[39]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, The Fight For The Delaware 1777, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, 1970.

[40]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, The Fight For The Delaware 1777, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, 1970.

[41]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, The Fight For The Delaware 1777, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, 1970.

[42]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, The Fight For The Delaware 1777, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, 1970.

[43]    Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Edited by John B. Linn and Wm. H> Egle, M.D., Published under the direction of Matthew S. Quay, Secretarty of the Commonwealth, Vol I., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1879.

[44]    Hutchinson, Esq., Charles, Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, pp.16-19.

[45]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles, Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Book 4, pp.16-19.

[46]    Boyer, Charles S., President Camden Historical Society, Early Forges and Furnaces in New Jersey, University of Penn. Press, Philadelphia, p.215.

[47]    Military Records of Joseph Clayton, available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

[48]    Raum, John O., The History of New Jersey, In Two Volumes, John E. Potter and Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, entered in Congress 1877. Volume II, p.19. 

[49]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey. MSS. Number 1094.

[50]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon in

New Jersey during the Revolutionary War, U.M.I., Ann Arbor Michigan, copyright by David J. Fowler, 1987, p.72.

[51]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders:  The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey during the Revolutionary War, U.M.I., Ann Arbor Michigan, copyright by David J. Fowler, 1987, pp. 55, 56, 58, 63.

 

[52]    Selections From The Correspondence Of The Executive Of New Jersey From 1776 To 1786.,  Published by order of the Legislature, Printed at The Newark Daily Advertiser Office, Newark, New Jersey, 1848, pp 304-305.

[53]     Selections From The Correspondence Of The Executive of New Jersey, From 1776 To 1786., Published

by order of the Legislature, Printed at The Newark Daily Advertiser Office, Newark New Jersey, 1848, p.304.

[54]    Selections From The Correspondence Of The Executive Of New Jersey From 1776 To 1786., Published by order of the Legislature, Printed at The Newark Daily Advertiser Office, Newark, New Jersey, 1848, Editor’s notes, p. 304.

[55]    Ewald, Captain Johan, Field Jager Corps, Diary of an American War, A Hessian Journal, Yale

University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 1979, First and Second Campaigns, 1776 and 1777. Italics added.

[56]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, The Battle of Princeton, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, NJ, 1967, p.6.  Italics added.

[57]    Bill, Alfred Hoyt, The Campaign of Princeton 1776-1777, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1948, p.74, Italics added.

[58]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series 1], Book 4, map p.3.

[59]    Rodney, Thomas, Diary of Captain Thomas Rodney 1776-1777, Papers of the Historical Society of Delaware, VII, Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware, 1888, p.26.

[60]    Rodney, Thomas, Diary of Captain Thomas Rodney 1776-1777, Papers of the Historical Society of Delaware, VIII, Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware, 1888, p. 27.

[61]    Gerlach, Larry R., Prologue to Independence, New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Appendix, p.379.

[62]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, The Battle of Princeton, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, p.10.

[63]    Bill, Alfred Hoyt, The Campaign of Princeton, 1776-1777, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1948. p. 77, Italics added.

[64]    Stryker, William S., The Battles of Princeton and Trenton, Houghton and Mifflin and Company, The

Riverside Press, Cambridge, Massachusettes, p. 243, italics added.

[65]    Rodney, Thomas, Diary of Captain Thomas Rodney, Papers of the Historical Society of Delaware, VII, The Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware, 1888, pp.27-28.

[66]   Ryden (Editor)PH.D.,George Herbert,  Letters to and from Caesar Rodney 1756-1784, Published for the Historical Society of Delaware, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1933, p. 152.

[67]    Rodney, Thomas, Diary of Captain Thomas Rodney, Papers of the Historical Society of Delaware, VII, The Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware, 1888, pp. 29-30.

[68]    Smith, Samuel Stelle, The Battle of Princeton, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, New Jersey, p.18.

[69]    Stryker, William S., The Battles of Trenton and Princeton, Houghton and Mifflin and Company, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1898, pp. 376-377.

[70]    Ward, Christopher, The War Of The Revolution, Volume 2, The Macmillan Company, New York, New York, 1952, p. 749.,   and,   Ryden, (Editor) PH. D., George Herbert, Letters to and from Caesar Rodney 1756-1784, Published for the Historical Society of Delaware, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1933, Title Page.

[71]    Stryker, William S., The Battles of Trenton and Princeton, Houghton and Mifflin and Company, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1898, p. 346, p.256, p.351, p.283, p.307. and  Ward, Christopher,

The Delaware Continentals 1776-1783, The Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware, 1941,       p. 113.

[72]    Boatner III, Mark M., The Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, David McKay Co., New York, New York, p.945.

[73]    Stryker, Wm. S., The Battles of Trenton and Princeton, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1898, p.437.

[74]    The George Washington Papers at The Library of Congress,

[75]     Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders: The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1987,          pp. 48-49.

[76]     The George Washington Papers at The Library of Congress, website www. loc.gov., keyword, ‘Francis

Wade’, Letter from Francis Wade to George Washington May 1777, and letter from Francis Wade to George Washington, January 29, 1777.

[77]     The George Washington Papers at The Library of Congress, www.loc.gov, keyword, ‘Francis Wade’: This letter was written and signed by General Nathaniel Green by order of Washington, Italics added.

[78]     The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, www.loc.gov,  keyword, ‘Francis Wade’, Italics added.

[79]     The George Washington Papers at The Library of Congress, website www. loc.gov., keyword, ‘Francis Wade’, Letter from Francis Wade to George Washington January 29, 1777with enclosure.

[80]    Library of Congress website, American Memory, A Century of Lawmaking, 1774-1873, Journals of the Continental Congress, June 26, 1777.

[81]    Stryker, William S., Editor, Documents Relating to the Revolutionary History of the State of New Jersey, Volume I., The John I. Murphy Publishing Co., Trenton, New Jersey, Extract from American Newspapers Vol. I., 1775-1777., 1901, p.324.

[82]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles, Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark New Jersey, Book 4, pp 16-19.

[83]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles, Charles R Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available on microfilm at the

New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Book 4, pp.16-19.

[84]    Military Service Records, Monmouth County Militia, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, #1141.

[85]     Military Service Records-Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Votes of Assembly, page 100.

[86]    Selections From The Correspondence Of the Executive Of New Jersey, From 1776 To 1786., Published by order of the Legislature, Printed at The Newark Daily Advertiser Office, Newark, New Jersey, 1848, pp.106-107.

[87]   Pennsylvania Gazette, August 13, 1777.

[88]    The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, www.loc.gov, keyword, ‘Allen Town’.

[89]    Watson, D. D., Samuel N., Those Paris Years, Fleming H. Revell Company, New York, copyright, MCMXXXVI, p. 59. Italics added.

[90]    Watson, D.D., Samuel N., Those Paris Years, Fleming H. Revell Company, New York, copyright, MCMXXXVI, p. 21.

[91]    Watson, D. D., Samuel N., Those Paris Years, Fleming H. Revell Company, New York, copyright MCMXXXVI, p.22., (parenthesis added)

[92]    Philemon Dickinson to Washington, from Trenton, June 24,1778, “1/2 past 6 o Clock,” George

Washington Papers, Presidential Papers Microfilm, (Washington, D. C., 1961), series 4, reel 50, contributed by

John U. Rees.

[93]    The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress,  “The writings of George Washington from the

Original Manuscript Sources,  1745-1799”,  Transcription by John Fabiano.

[94]    The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress.  “The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799”.  John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor.—vol.12      

[95]    Sullivan, Thomas, From Redcoat to Rebel: The Thomas Sullivan Journal, c. Joseph Lee Boyle, Heritage Books, Inc., Bowie, Maryland, 1997, p 221. Italics added.

[96]    John Peebles’ American War: The Diary of a Scottish Grenadier, 1776- 1782, Ira Gruber, ed. , Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 1998, contributed by John U. Rees.

[97]    Hausser, Journal of Quartermaster Hauser of von Lossing’s Regiment, Papers of William S. Stryker, Division of Archives and Records Management, Manuscript Collection, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton New Jersey, DARM WSSB212.

[98]    Major Andre, Major Andre’s Journal, Eyewitness Accounts of the American Revolution, New York Times and Arno Press, Tarrytown, New York, William Abbott, 1930, p.77, c.1904, The Bibliographical Society.

[99]    Deposition of William Lloyd, resident of Upper Freehold, New Jersey (1757-1837) and member Monmouth

       County militia, John C. Dann, ed., The Revolution Remembered; Eyewitness Accounts of the War for Independence (Chicago, Illinois, 1980), 121-127.

[100]    Pension Deposition of Major Thomas Massie.

[101]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript available at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series1], Book 4, pp. 122-136.

[102]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript available on microfilm at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, (transcribed from a letter reprinted in the Monmouth Inquirer, Thursday, Jan. 15, 1880), Family Records [Series 1], Book 4, p.130. Italics added.

[103]    Storms, F. Dean, History Of Allentown, New Jersey, Allentown Messenger, Allentown, New Jersey, 1965, p.118.

[104]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript available on microfilm at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records, [Series 4], Book C., “Extract from the Monmouth Democrat”, p.118.

[105]    Stryker, William S., (late), Edited by William Starr Myers, P.H.D., The Battle of Monmouth, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1927, p. 90.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

[106]     George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, Series 4. General Correspondence. 1697-1799, John Heard to George Washington.

[107]    Maps from the manuscript of Major Andres Journal, The Huntington Library, San Marino, California, original prints from microfilm, David Library, Washington Crossing State Park, Pennsylvania.

[108]    Allentown Messenger, Allentown, New Jersey, Nov. 16, 1905.

[109]    Watson D.D., Samuel N., Those Paris Years, Fleming H. Revell Company, New York, copyright MCMXXXVI, pp. 56-57.

[110]    Storms, F. Dean, Address delivered to the Allentown Historical Society, November 17, 1969, transcript in the possession of the Allentown-Upper Freehold Historical Society.

[111]    Henry House near Allentown was Site of British Encampment, The Princeton Recollector, September 1978.

[112]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript available on microfilm at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series1], Book 4, p.106.

[113]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript available on microfilm at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series1], Book 4, maps.

[114]    Major Andre, Major Andre’s Journal, Eyewitness Accounts of the American Revolution, New York Times and Arno Press Tarrytown, New York, William Abbott 1930, p. 77, c. 1904 The Bibliological Society. Italics added.

[115]    Translated and edited by Bruce E. Burgoyne, Diaries of Two Ansbach Jaegers, Heritage Books, Bowie, Maryland, copyright by Bruce E. Burgoyne, 1997, p.41.

[116]    Storms, Dean, History of Allentown, New Jersey, Allentown Messenger, 1965, p.19.

[117]    John Hills Maps, John Hills, Assistant Engineer, edited by Peter Guthorn, Portolan Press, Brielle, New Jersey, map entitled To His Excellency Sir Henry Clinton,  General and Commander of His Majesty’s

Forces &c &c &c in North America This map is most Humbly Dedicated by His Excellancys most Humble and Obediante Servant, John Hills, Afs, Engineer, map, p.15.

[118]    Gris, J. G., Allentown Messenger, Monmouth County, New Jersey, Thursday, May 2, 1963.

[119]     Advertisement handout from the sale of the contents of the Imlay mansion, Collections of Alice Wikoff,

Allentown, New Jersey, 1936.

[120]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles R., The Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Book D., S. B. 70, Vol. 4, p. 35. Parenthesis added.

[121]    Hutchinson, Esq., Charles R., The Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark New Jersey, Book D, S. B. 70, Vol. 4, pp. 35-36.

[122]    Baurmeister, Adjutant General Major, Hessian Forces, Revolution In America, Confidential Letters and Journals 1776-1784, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1957, p.185.

[123]    Ewald, Captain Johann, Field Jager Corps, Diary of an American War, A Hessian Journal, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 1979, p.135. Italics added.

[124]    Major Andre, Major Andres Journal, Eyewitness Accounts of the American Revolution, New York

Times and Arno Press, Tarrytown, New York, William Abbott 1930, p.77, c. 1904, The Bibliological

Society.

[125]    The George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, Keyword www.loc.gov , “June 25, 1778”

[126]    Palmer, John McAuley, General Von Stuben, Yale University Press, New Haven Connecticut, 1937, p.181. Italics added.

[127]    Palmer, John McAuley, General Von Stuben, Yale University Press, New Haven Connecticut, 1937. p.181, p.183.  Italics added.

[128]    Dearborn, Henry, Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 1775-1783, Books For Library’s Press, 1969.

[129]    Dearborn, Henry, Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 1775-1783, Books For Library’s Press 1969.

[130]    Fleming, Thomas, Liberty! The American Revolution, copyright by Twin Cities Public Television and Thomas Fleming, Viking Penguin New York, New York, 1997,  p.148.

[131]    Fleming, Thomas, Liberty! The American Revolution, copyright by Twin Cities Public Television and Thomas Fleming, Viking Penguin, New York, New York, 1997, p.148.

[132]    Fleming, Thomas, Liberty! The American Revolution, copyright by Twin Cities Public Television and Thomas Fleming, Viking Penguin, New York, New York, p. 148.

[133]    The Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, George Washington Papers Series 4, General Correspondence. 1697-1799.

[134]    The Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, George Washington Papers Series 4, General Correspondence. 1697-1799.

[135]     Washington to the President of Congress, 1 July 1778, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799, vol. 12 (Washington, D. C., 1934), 139-143.,

contributed by John U Rees.

[136]    Boatner III, Mark Mayo, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, David McKay Co., Inc., New York, New York, p. 457.

[137]     Sullivan, Thomas, From Redcoat to Rebel: The Thomas Sullivan Journal, Heritage Books, Inc., Bowie Maryland, copyright by Joseph Lee Boyle, 1997, p.222.

[138]    Sullivan, Thomas, From Redcoat to Rebel: The Thomas Sullivan Journal, Heritage Books, Inc., Bowie Maryland, copyright by Joseph Lee Boyle, 1997, pp. 223,224.

[139]     Sullivan, Thomas, From Redcoat to Rebel: The Thomas Sullivan Journal, Heritage Books, Inc., Bowie

Maryland, copyright by Joseph Lee Boyle, 1997, p. 224.

[140]     Sullivan, Thomas, From Redcoat to Rebel: The Thomas Sullivan Journal, Heritage Books, Inc., Bowie

Maryland, copyright by Joseph Lee Boyle, 1997, p. 229.

[141]     Ashmore, Jabesh, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty- Land- Warrant Application Files, National

Archives Microfilm Publication M804, W5647, contributed by John U Rees.

[142]    Ashmore, Jabesh, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty- Land- Warrant Application Files, National

Archives Microfilm Publication Files, M804, W5647.

[143]    The Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, George Washington Papers Series 4, General

Correspondence, 1697-1799. www.loc.gov., keyword- ‘David Rhea’’, transcribed by Ann Garrison.

[144]    Hutchinson, Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, available on microfilm at the New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey,

[145]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders:  The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, Copyright by David J. Fowler, UMI Dissertation Services, 1987, pp. 162, 163.

[146]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders:  The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, Copyright by David J. Fowler, UMI Dissertation Services, 1987,

pp. 146, 147.

[147]    Fowler, David J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers, and London Traders:  The Pine Robber Phenomenon in New Jersey During the Revolutionary War, Copyright by David J. Fowler, UMI Dissertation Services, 1987, pp. 164, 165.

[148]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles, Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series1], Book 4. pp.16 - 19.

[149]    Boyer, Charles S., President, Camden Historical Society, Early Forges and Furnaces in New Jersey,  University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, (no date), p.215.

[150]    New Jersey Archives, Second Series, III, p. 574.

[151]    Boyer, Charles S., President, Camden Historical Society, Early Forges and Furnaces in New Jersey, University of Penn. Press, Philadelphia, (no date), p.216.

[152]    Compiled and Edited with Genealogical Notes by the Historical Research Committee of the New Jersey Society of the Colonial Dames of America, The Letters of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General of New Jersey in the Revolution, Fredrick H. Hitchcock, New York, MCMXII.

[153]     Salter, Edwin, A History of Monmouth and Ocean Counties, E. Gardner & Sons, Bayonne, New Jersey, 1890, p.88.

[154]    Advertisements, New Jersey State Gazette, 1777, 1778, 1779, 1780, 1781, 1783, available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.  (Photocopies of Allentown Admiralty Court Advertisements are in the papers of Alice Wikoff, Allentown, New Jersey.)

[155]     Stryker, William S., Official Register of the Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Revolutionary War, Geneological Publishing Company, Baltimore, Maryland, 1967, p.349.

[156]    Draft of part of a book sent to Joseph Truncer, noted historian of Upper Freehold Township, Monmouth County for review, with author’s notes in the margin, Collection of the Allentown-Upper Freehold Township Historical Society, Chapter 11. Underlines added.

[157]    N.J. Archives 2nd Series, New Jersey in the Revolution, Vols. I, II ,III ,IV, V, New Jersey State Archives,

Trenton, New Jersey. Underlines added.

[158]    NJ Archives 2nd Series, New Jersey in the Revolution, Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

[159]    Compiled by Wilson, Thomas B., Notices from New Jersey Newspapers, 1781-1790, Vol. I, Hunterdon House, Lambertville, New Jersey, 1988,  pp 31-32, Newspaper- New Jersey Gazette.

[160]    Salter, Edwin, A History of Monmouth and Ocean Counties, E. Gardner and Son, Bayonne, New Jersey, 1890, p. 200.

[161]    Koegler, Mary Lou, The Burrows Mansion of Matawan, New Jersey, Snell Graphics, Eatontown, New Jersey, 1978, p. 48.

[162]    Draft of part of a book sent to Joseph Truncer, noted historian of Upper Freehold Township, Monmouth County for review, with author’s notes in the margin, Collection of the Allentown-Upper Freehold Historical Society, Chapter 11.

[163]    Draft of part of a book sent to Joseph Truncer, noted historian of Upper Freehold Township, Monmouth

County for review, with author’s notes in the margin, Collection of the Allentown-Upper Freehold Historical

Society, Chapter 11.

[164]    Papers of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General, State of New Jersey, copies available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

[165]   Papers of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General, State of New Jersey, copies available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

[166]   Military Service Records- Account of Money paid to Sundry Persons in the Quarter Master General and Forage Departments, available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, #4292.

[167]   Military Service Records, Officers employed in the Quarter Master General and Wagon Master General’s Departments, Revolutionary War, 1779-1780, copy available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, #4283.

[168]    Military Service Records, Return of Persons employed in the Quartermaster General & Forage Departments in the State of New Jersey (Sussex County excepted) with the Daily or Monthly Pay each Receives in the Month of January 1780, copies available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, #5939.

[169]    Military Service Records, A Return of the Quarter Masters Department – New Jersey Militia, copy available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey., #4188.

[170]    Military Service Records, Assistant Quarter Masters – Militia, copy available at the New Jersey State

Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, #4190.

[171]   Military Service Records, -Card File, Quartermaster Generals Department, Elisha Lawrence, copy available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, N.J. Line, page 371.

[172]    Papers of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General, New Jersey, copies available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

[173]    Military Service Records, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Inv. 9507 (Oakley Vanosdol).

[174]    Revolutionary period, NJ Militia, Captain Robert Rhea’s Co., Monmouth County Militia, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, (from papers on file at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives) Newark,

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[176]    Fowler, David, J., Egregious Villains, Wood Rangers and London Traders:  The Pine Robber Phenomenon During the Revolutionary War, copyright David J. Fowler, UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1987, pp. 125,126.

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[223]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Mss Number 7269, page 4.

[224]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton New Jersey, Printed Roster, page 66., and p. 837- Same.

[225]    Military Service Records-Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS. Number 2289.

[226]    Military Service Records-Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS. Number 2293.

[227]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Mss No. 2518.

[228]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Wid.4690 (Job Harrison).

[229]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS. Number 7268, page 2,

[230]    Papers of Moore Furman, Deputy Quartermaster General, New Jersey, copies available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton New Jersey.

[231]    Military Service Records- Card File, Letter from David Rhea to Moore Furman, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Ms. 10671.

[232]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Inv. 12609 (Elias Conover).

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[234]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Wid. 6606 (Joseph Sutfin).

[235]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS. Number 1074.

[236]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS. Number 1087.

[237]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Rej. 6542 Jacob Lyall.

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[239]    Military Service Records-Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Mss. Number 3857.

[240]    Hutchinson Esq., Charles R, Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available on microfilm at the New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series 4] , Books C and D.

[241]    Revolutionary Period, NJ Militia, Captain Robert Rhea’s Co., Monmouth County Militia, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton New Jersey, (from papers on file at the New Jersey Historical Society Archives) Newark New Jersey. #3, Ms.1126, printed roster, page 407.

[242]    Military Service Records, New Jersey State Archives, Inv. 2878 (Burnet Montgomery).

[243]    Military Service Records, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Wid. 7632 (David Hay).

[244]    Military Service Records, State Troops, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Indents Revolutionary War, page 392.

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[246]    Hutchinson, Esq., Charles R., Charles R. Hutchinson Collection, manuscript copy available at the New Jersey State Historical Society Archives, Newark, New Jersey, Family Records [Series 4], Book C and D].

[247]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS Number 1094.

[248]    Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Wid. 18311 (John Vanderbilt).

[249]     Military Service Records-Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Rej.11507.

[250]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, (Inv.656 (Zachariah Hawkins.)

[251]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Wid 7960 (Walter Karr)

[252]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS. Number 3795, page 1.

[253]     Military Service Records-Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS< Number 3793, page 5.

[254]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Inv. 2427 (John Chamberlain.)

[255]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Inv. 2352 (David Baird.)

[256]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Rejtd. #1918 (Isaac Childs)

[257]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Rejtd. #1918 (Isaac Childs)

[258]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Inv. 707. (Jacob Lane.)

[259]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Wid 6391. (James Wall.)

[260]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Inv.3645 (William Paynton.)

[261]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Inv. 107 b2 (Kenneth Gordon.)

[262]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Printed Roster, 418.

[263]     Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS. Number 3795, page 6.

[264]   Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, MSS. Number 3795, page 3.

[265]   Military Service Records- Card File, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, Auditor Accounts C, page 13.

[266]    List of Officers of the Monmouth Militia, Upper Freehold Township, Military Service Records, copy available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, #1135.

[267]    Military Service Records, Capt. James Bruere’s Company- from Allentown, to guard the coast of Monmouth County 1778 & 1780, Revolutionary, copy available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton , New Jersey, #1094.

[268]   Military Service Records,  Battle of Monmouth, Monmouth Democrat, copy available at the New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey, no date,  #1153.